Nostalgia As a Device for Dealing with Traumatic Experiences During the COVID-19 Crisis

  • Bilyana Todorova South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria
  • Gergana Padareva-Ilieva South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria
Keywords: nostalgia, COVID-19, Bulgarians, social media, trauma

Abstract

The paper is an investigation of nostalgia in its diverse manifestations in social media, mainly Facebook, during COVID-19 crisis in Bulgaria and is based on pre-observation which shows that communication through social media at that period was largely nostalgic. The study considers nostalgia as a strategy for dealing with the 2020 state of emergency during which the lack of physical contact and social experiences can create preconditions for anxiety, depression and fear leading to traumatic consequences. The research is based on empirical material actively collected using the method of the included observation in the period from the 15th of March 2020, when the state of emergency in connection with COVID-19 was declared in Bulgaria, until the 30th of June 2020. The purpose of the paper is to present the nostalgic modes in Facebook and to reveal the reasons for their success as communicative and social messages. Applying interdisciplinary and multimodal approach the study describes the nostalgic manifestations by classifying thematically the initiatives, communication strategies and topics, oriented towards the past, as well as revealing their meaning for the society. The results show that the main role of nostalgic Facebook modes is to unite people in times of isolation, to raise their spirit and thus save them from the traumas that the COVID-19 crisis can cause. The multimodal analysis of the Facebook images from the empirical data confirms that social media and modern technologies make it possible to create `new products` based on old stories or memories that acquire a new meaning in the specific COVID-19 situation, modelled by the culture and mentality of Bulgarians in isolation.

Author Biographies

Bilyana Todorova , South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria
Gergana Padareva-Ilieva , South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria

References

Abramov, R., Chestiakova, A. (2012). Nostalgic images of the Soviet’s recent past: The media activism of Leonid Parfenov. International Journal of Cultural Research, 1(6), 52–58.

Batcho, K. I. (2007). Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics. American Journal of Psychology, 120, 361–381.

Bartlett, T. (2020). Time, the deer, is in the wood: Chronotopic identities, trajectories of texts and community self-management. Applied Linguistics Review. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2019-0134

Ben Moussa, M., Benmessaoud, S., Douai, A. (2020) Internet memes as “tactical” social action: A multimodal critical discourse analysis approach. International Journal of Communication, 14, 5920–5940.

Boym, Sv. (2001). Adoptation and elaboration from Svetlana Boym, The Future of Nostalgia, Basic Books, NY 2001. Retrieved from: http://monumenttotransformation.org/atlas-of-transformation/html/n/nostalgia/nostalgia-svetlana-boym.html

Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395, 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30460-8

Ch'ng, E., Li, M., Chen, Z., Lang, J., See, S. (2019) Multimodal approaches in analysing and interpreting big social media data. In Multimodal Analytics for Next-Generation Big Data Technologies and Applications (pp. 361–390). Kah Phooi Seng, Li-minn Ang, Alan Wee-Chung Liew, Junbin Gao (Eds.). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97598-6_15

FioRito, TA, Routledge C. (2020) Is nostalgia a past or future-oriented experience? affective, behavioral, social cognitive, and neuroscientific evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1133. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01133

Gammon, S., Ramshaw, Gr. (2020) Distancing from the present: Nostalgia and leisure in lockdown. Leisure Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2020.177399

Havlena, W., Holak, S. (1991) “The Good Old Days”: Observations on nostalgia and its role in consumer behavior. In R. Holman, M. Solomon, (eds.), NA – Advances in Consumer Research, 18, (pp.323–329), Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Jewitt, C., Henriksen, B. (2016) Social semiotics multimodality. In N.-M. Klug, H. Stöckl, (Eds.). Handbuch Sprache im multimodalen Kontext (pp.145–164). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Jian, Y., Lin, J, Zhou, Zh. (2021) The role of travel constraints in shaping nostalgia, destination attachment and revisit intentions and the moderating effect of prevention regulatory focus. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100516

Jovanovic, D., Van Leeuwen, T. (2018) Multimodal dialogue on social media. Social Semiotics, 28(5), 683–699. https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2018.1504732

Kalinina, E. (2016) What do we talk about when we talk about media and nostalgia. Medien & Zeit, 4, 6–15.

Kalinina, E., Menke, M. (2016). Negotiating the past in hyperconnected memory cultures. Post-Soviet nostalgia and national identity in Russian online communities. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 12(1), 59–74.

Koowuttayakorn, S. (2018) An investigation of Instagram’s metonymy: A multimodal social semiotic approach. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 11(1). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1225833.pdf 26 12 2020

Kress, G. (2009) Multimodality: a social semiotic approach to contemporary communication, London: Routledge.

Menke, M., Schwarzenegger, C. (2016) Media, communication and nostalgia. Finding a better tomorrow in the yesterday? Editorial. Medien & Zeit, 4, 2–5.

Niemeyer, K., Wentz, D. (2014) Nostalgia is not what it used to be: serial nostalgia and nostalgic television series. In K. Niemeyer, (ed). Media and Nostalgia: Yearning for the Past, the Present and the Future (pp. 129–138). London: Palgrave McMillan.

Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Ál., Irurtia M.J., de Luis-García, R. (2020) Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university, Psychiatry Research, 290, 113108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113108

O’Halloran, K.L., Chua, A., Rodlasov, A. (2014) The role of images in social media analytics: a multimodal digital humanities approach. In: Visual Communication (pp. 565–588), D. Machin (Ed.). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110255492.565

Padareva-Ilieva, G., Todorova, B. (2016) Nostalgiyata kato sredstvo za manipulatsia v mediate. [Nostalgia As a Manipulative Strategy in Media]. Ezikov Svyat, 14(2), 41–44.

Pandey, D., Bansal, S., Goyal, S., Garg, A., Sethi, N., Pothiyill, DI. (2020) Psychological impact of mass quarantine on population during pandemics – The COVID-19 Lock-Down (COLD) study. PLoS ONE 15(10): e0240501. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240501

Ron, A. G., Cuéllar-Flores, I. (2020) Psychological impact of lockdown (confinement) on young children and how to mitigate its effects: Rapid review of the evidence. Anales de Pediatria, 93(1), 57–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anpede.2020.04.008

Saladino, V., Algeri, D., Auriemma, V. (2020) The psychological and social impact of COVID-19: new perspectives of well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2550. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577684

Sedikides, C., Wildschut, T. (2016) Past forward. Nostalgia as a motivational force. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(5), 319–321. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.tics.2016.01.008

Sedikides, C., Wildschut, T., Routledge, C., Arndt, J., Hepper, E. G., Zhou, X. (2015). Chapter Five – To nostalgize: mixing memory with affect and desire, In J. Olson, M. Zanna, (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 189–273). Academic Press, 51. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aesp.2014.10.001

Serafini, F., Reid, S. (2019) Multimodal content analysis: expanding analytical approaches to content analysis. Visual Communication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357219864133

Sweeney, P. (2020) Nostalgia reconsidered, Ratio, 33(3), 184–190. https://doi.org/10.1111/rati.12272

Todorova, B., Padareva-Ilieva, G. (2018). (Ne)zabravenite svetove v novia svyat (Lingvokulturologichen analiz na mediynite poslania). [(Un)forgettable worlds in the new world (Cultural linguistic analysis of the media messages)]. Balkanistic Forum, 1, 212–221.

Van Leeuwen, T. (2005) Introducing social semiotics. London and New York: Routledge.

Published
2021-06-29
How to Cite
TodorovaB., & Padareva-Ilieva G. (2021). Nostalgia As a Device for Dealing with Traumatic Experiences During the COVID-19 Crisis. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics , 8(1). https://doi.org/10.29038/eejpl.2021.8.1.tod