East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl <p><strong>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</strong> is an international&nbsp;<a href="http://eepl.at.ua/index/licensing/0-13">open access</a>&nbsp;peer-reviewed academic periodical published semiannually in June and December with both online and print versions.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for scholars to share, foster, and discuss globally various new topics and advances in different fields of modern psycholinguistics. The journal publishes original manuscripts covering but not limited to the following theoretical and applied fields of psycholinguistics, including neurolinguistics, cognitive psychology, psychology of language, translation studies.</p> en-US psycholing@eenu.edu.ua (Serhii Zasiekin) Hordovska.Tetiana@eenu.edu.ua (Tetiana Hordovska) Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Variation Within Idiomatic Variation: Exploring the Differences Between Speakers and Idioms https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/362 <p>Corpus-based research on idiomatic variation has shown that idioms can be utilized with an extensive range of variation, including the possibility of idioms occurring with adjectival modification (e.g. make rapid headway), lexical variation (e.g. the calm/lull before the storm), and partial forms (e.g. birds of a feather [flock together]). Previous experimental research eliciting variation within idioms has tended to focus on unintended ‘slips of the tongue’, or errors in production. &nbsp;To date, no experimental study has explored the creativity that speakers can employ when using idioms. This study, by contrast, aims to elicit conscious and spontaneous productions of idiomatic variation, exploring just how creative speakers can be when using idiomatic expressions. Participants were asked to create headlines for newspaper snippets using provided idioms. They were explicitly told that the expression did not have to be exact and that they could be as creative as they wanted. The headlines for each idiom and each speaker were then examined. Variational patterns are observed for both idioms and speakers. For instance, some idioms (e.g. jump on the bandwagon) typically occur with partial forms, lexical variation, and/or adjectival modification; whereas other idioms (e.g. call the shots) are predominantly used in their canonical form. Similarly, some speakers (e.g. Speaker 14037) demonstrated considerable flexibility and playfulness when using the expressions, while other speakers (e.g. Speaker 14020) preferred minimal, if any, modification to the idioms. These results not only converge with previous corpus-based findings, but they also highlight the individual differences between speakers, as well as reveal how creative and innovative speakers can be when using idiomatic expressions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kristina Geeraert, John Newman, R. Harald Baayen Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/362 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Emergence and Development of Wh-questions in Jordanian Arabic-speaking Children: A Longitudinal Study https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/364 <p>The main objective of this paper is to examine the emergence and development of wh-questions in two Jordanian Arabic-speaking pre-school children. Specifically, it investigates (1) how&nbsp; these children interact with wh-questions;&nbsp; which questions they find easier and thus earlier to acquire and why, and finally (2) what symptoms one can identify as characteristics of the intra-stage&nbsp; development of such questions. The data of the study are a subset of a large body of a longitudinal audio-taped corpus collected by the principal author, who happened to be a psycholinguist and the children’s grandparent, on the basis of three-day, weekly sessions over a period of five years. The recordings were made in the family home environment during routine activities, mainly after dinner, and mostly in the presence of family members. The findings reveal the acquisition of wh-questions is a complex process that supports a general cognitive maturity model interpretation. The acquisition of wh-questions that ask about concrete objects/entities, that is mi:n ‘who’, we:n ‘where’ and ʔe:ʃ/ʃu: ‘what’ are produced and developed at an earlier stage than those questions which ask about abstract objects/entities, that is le:ʃ ‘why’, ke:f ‘how’, ɡadde:ʃ/kam ‘how many/much’ and wakte:ʃ/ʔe:mta ‘when’. However, the subjects do not find the questions within each of the two sets equally easy/difficult. Put differently, in the first category, mi:n ranked first on the easy/difficult scale while ʔe:ʃ/ʃu: ranked third. Moreover, the order of acquisition in the second category suggested that it is easier for Jordanian Arabic-speaking children to ask about reason (le:ʃ-why) than about time (wakte:ʃ-when) and that to ask about quantity (ɡadde:ʃ/kam-how many/much) is more difficult than to ask about manner (ke:f-how). The study argues that the emergence of wh-words does not mark but the onset of an accumulative process which includes a host of symptoms on the way to adult-like acquisition.</p> Jihad Hamdan, Hady Hamdan Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/364 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Foreign Languages’ Influence on Albanian Police Lexicon https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/365 <p><span lang="EN-US">In this study we attempted to thoroughly explain influences of foreign languages on police lexicon in Albanian language, with special focus on the influence of Serbian and English language in Kosovo, as well as the influence of Italian and English language in Albania. Influence of Serbian language only on police lexicon in Kosovo has been created due to historic circumstances of development of police activities under specific conditions. The impact of Serbian language on police lexicon in Albanian language in Kosovo was prevailing for a long period, during which Kosovo was under Serbian rule. This linguistic influence at its highest level in time period between 1970-1990, when Albanian language was used in police activities in Kosovo. In that time period most of the police officers were of the Albanian ethnicity and Kosovo had the status of autonomous province (1974-1990). English influence on police lexicon in Kosovo started in 1999 after liberation of Kosovo. From 1999 to 2008, English was used as the official language together with local languages Albanian and Serbian. This influence has not been limited only to police activities but it has spread widely into all fields of activities in Albanian language in Kosovo. Influence of English language in police lexicon is also evident in Albania, with words like: brifing (alb) – briefing (en), lidership (alb) – leadership (en), staf (alb.)– staff (en), task force (alb) – task force (en), etc. On the other hand Italian language is an influential language in police lexicon only in Albania due to historical, economic and cultural development. As a result, this is manifested by some basic words denoting police activities in Albania derived from Italian, like: komisiariati (alb) – commissariato (it), kavaleri (alb) – cavaleria (it), Policia e Shtetit (alb) - Polizia di Stato (it).</span></p> Shemsi Haziri Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/365 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Inherent Bond: External Visual Aid Has a Minor Effect on the Rate of Co-Speech Gestures https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/366 <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> Traditionally, the purpose of representational co-speech gestures is to repeat or represent the semantic content of accompanying speech and so to facilitate speech comprehension. To test this belief, each of 22 participants was asked to deliver an informative speech once with the support of visual aid in the form of data-show (DS) projector slides and then to deliver the same speech without using any visual aid (NDS) in a different session; the purpose was to see if using visual aid had any significant effect on gesture rate during speech production. The theoretical framework of the study is based on findings in the Information Packaging Hypothesis, the Gesture as Simulated Action framework and relevant findings in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. The results showed that all participants used gestures during both sessions; the average number of co-speech gestures was 7.2 during the NDS and 6 during the DS sessions. This shows that using visual aid that supports the semantic content of speech did not lead to a significant reduction in the number of co-speech gestures in the DS sessions; it also indicates that the role of co-speech gestures is not merely to repeat the semantic content of accompanying speech. These results confirm previous findings in cognitive psychology that speech and accompanying gesture are cognitively and instinctively connected as one unit and that co-speech gestures possibly have an essential role in facilitating speech conceptualization and production. Speech and co-speech gestures are neurologically interconnected and they are impulsively produced whenever a speaker intends to communicate a message. These findings also add further evidence to relevant research which emphasizes that co-speech gestures are not produced merely as visual aid that aims to supplement speech.</p> Samer Omar Jarbou Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/366 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychometrics, Rhetoric, Narrative in Media Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/367 <p>The paper is focused on the critical exploration of an experiment held in the Ukrainian media environment. Results of the experiment are reflected in the book <em>Freedom of Speech Against Fear and Humiliation</em>&nbsp;published by Savik Shuster, the Ukrainian political journalist and the&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation"><span lang="EN-US"><em>Freedom of Speech</em> TV talk show host.</span></span> The study aims to define factors and predictors of the Ukrainian audience’s social behavior. In this regard, narrative, conversational, and intent analyses of his talk shows participants’ conflict interaction described in the book, were applied. These tools made it possible to explicate his narratives’ main topics, their prominence, role positions, archetypal patterns of the participant and host’s behavior. The narrative structure of “negative” scenarios of the talk shows described in the book enabled defining the host as the encourager of the speakers’ conflict behavior, high tension of their discourse that leads to deconstructing, discrediting, and demonizing the opponent’s political party image. Although S. Schuster's conclusions were full of dramatic statements and almost apocalyptic predictions, their reinterpretation was necessary. The application of <em>F</em>-test&nbsp;as a measure of testing statistical hypotheses relevant to empirical data, allowed to search for additional political and psychological explanatory models of the “emotional map of Ukraine”.&nbsp;Results of the study demonstrate hidden suggestion of hopelessness, feelings of betrayal, protest moods inspired by the speakers invited to the TV show. This adversely affects the critical understanding of current social processes along with radicalization of public sentiment by shifting the locus of control to the outside, when the audience invited to the show delegates responsibility for the state of affairs in the country and their own well-being to their political leaders.</p> Zinoviia Karpenko Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/367 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Psychosemantic Study of Compensation Psychological Defense Mechanism in the Novice Military Leaders https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/368 <p>The aim of the article is to study the formative impact of the defense mechanism “compensation” on the leader’s personality. The research is based on the axiological semantic research method created due to the development and application of experimental psychosemantics to the issue of leadership. An experiment was conducted with the view of confirming the fact of impact of the defense mechanism “compensation” on the leader’s personality formation. This experiment involved 30 students undergoing leadership training for tactical officers at the Heroiv Krut Military Institute of Telecommunications and Information Technologies. &nbsp;A test-questionnaire was created to experimentally substantiate the reliability of the proposed conjecture. At the outset of the experiment, the participants were asked to note in the test-questionnaire the basic postulates they rely on when forming relationships in the military community. For the purpose of creating a relaxed atmosphere the postulates (60 units) were presented in the form of posts (quotes and aphorisms) which are most often posted on social media pages. Based on the methods of psychological subjective semantics and psychosemantics, we established the predominance of a certain form of defence mechanism “compensation”. Then followed the assessment of the leadership role preferences displayed by the participating pilot students, this providing the basis for drawing conclusions as regards the tendency for a particular form of leadership. Matching of the obtained results revealed correlations between mental reflections of various phenomena. Although correlational study has a lower degree of confidence in predicting cause and effect, it can provide strong indications that relationships exist. Results and discussions. The defense mechanism “direct compensation” correlates with the kind of “fighter” leader, “overcompensation” correlates with the kind “father”, “decompensation” correlates with the kind “tyrant”. To conclude, trend to use a certain type of defense mechanism affects the acceptance and assimilation of a certain role type of leader. In addition, the use of information which are most often posted by social media users on their personal accounts as a content for the test-questionnaire allows us to conclude about the possibility of using social media account to determine the psychological type of personality by analyzing posts, likes and comments.</p> Tetyana Khraban, Ihor Khraban Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/368 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Strategies for Determining German Nouns' Gender by College Students https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/369 <p>The article is dedicated to the study of strategies for determining the gender of nouns of the German language by Ukrainian-speaking first-year-students at the Yuriy Fedkovych National University of Chernivtsi, Ukraine. The purpose of the study is to establish the strategies for determining the gender of nouns on the basis of phonetic, morphological, and semantic criteria and experimentally trace the impact of interlingual and intralingual interference in the process of gender categorization of nouns.&nbsp;The material of the study included 60 nouns, out of which 30 were phonetic equivalents and 30 – semantic ones. Each group contained 10 nouns of the masculine, feminine and neuter gender respectively, with the same number of structurally different nouns among them, which were selected according to semantic, morphological, and phonetic rules of gender identification. To identify strategies for determining the gender of German nouns, two psycholinguistic experiments were held with a month interval. The experiments involved 30 first-year-students at the University of Chernivtsi (German department), who had to decide whether the noun gender specified in DMDX program is correct. Thus, the article in half of the given nouns was set incorrectly in the program. The obtained results indicate that the gender of the noun of the native language significantly affects gender determining of the German phonetic equivalent (85% of all mistakes in determining the gender in Experiment 1 and 47% – in Experiment 2). The students also focus on the suffixes or endings of German nouns when choosing the correct gender. Phonetic or semantic rules for determining gender play a secondary role. The gender of a noun in the native language prevents the correct choice of the gender in the German language, which is twice as often recorded for phonetic equivalents.</p> Svitlana Kiyko, Yuriy Kiyko, Viktor Drebet Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/369 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Tatar-Russian Bilingualism in Early Childhood https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/370 <p>The paper presents findings from psycholinguistic research with normally developing preschool Tatar-Russian bilingual children between the age of 4;0 to 6;0 years old. Forty children in total- twenty children between the age of 4;0 -5;0, and twenty children between the age of 5;0-6;0 were tested. Children with language impairment and mental disabilities were excluded from the study. All children attend a polylingual kindergarten, where the children learn in organized way the following three languages: their mother tongue - the state language of the Tatarstan - the Tatar language, Russian - the official language of the Russian Federation to which Tatarstan belongs, and English.&nbsp;The children were tested with two types of language tests: Syntactic test (wh-complement tests) and mix Tatar-Russian vocabulary test (comprehension and production). They were also tested with a psychological non-verbal Knock Tap test. All children were tested individually in a separate room by a native Tatar speaking and Russian speaking researcher. In order to avoid the influence of the language of testing on the results half of the children were tested with part of the tests in Tatar language and the other part in Russian language. The next day they were changing the languages and the tests. The research question we try to answer is: Do the children develop balanced bilingualism in the kindergarten age having in mind the educational system they are involved in or they are dominant in one of the two languages.&nbsp;The results of the children are analyzed with the ANOVA and SPSS Statistics. They show that the older children are better in all test. Regarding the language the younger children show poor results in Tatar and better results in Russian. The older children show equally good results in both languages.&nbsp;The paper discusses the classical theory of Skutnabb-Kangas (1981) and newest findings of Bialystok (2020) regarding the bilingualism and bilingual education from early ages and which factors play important role in successful development of balanced bilingualism from early age.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hristo Kyuchukov, Oksana S. Ushakova, Farida S. Gazizova Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/370 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the First Ukrainian Syllabi on General and Special Methodology of Translation by Mykhailo Kalynovych and Mykola Zerov https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/371 <p><span lang="EN-US">The article studies and discusses the programs of interrelated lecture courses on General and Special Methodology of Translation, developed for the Ukrainian Institute of Linguistic Education by its professors Mykhailo Kalynovych and Mykola Zerov in September 1932. This material is analyzed from the perspective of psycholinguistic text theory</span><span lang="UK">,</span><span lang="EN-US"> according to which the text is the basic unit of discourse</span> <span lang="EN-US">that, in turn, is a component of communicative action, along with the situation. The study focuses on the micro- and macrotext structure of the above programs and highlights the peculiarities of their communicative intentions in the political and social reality of early Stalinism. It features the unique, innovative elements in them, but also those that were typical of the early Soviet theory of translation. For the first time not only in Ukrainian but also in the All-Union thought on translation, Kalynovych and Zerov presented in their integrated courses the ramified structure of Translation Studies as a multifaceted discipline. They introduced into the discipline novel methodology and new research directions, particularly by creating such areas as the history of translation studies and translation management. The material of Zerov's syllabus on Special Methodology of Translation is first published and discussed in this article. The typewritten text of the syllabus remained unknown until the author of the article found</span> <span lang="EN-US">and identified it in the Archives of the Literary Museum of Hryhoriy Kochur, who had been a student of Zerov at the Kyiv Institute of Public Education and further remained his faithful follower. During the Khrushchev thaw, Kochur made many efforts to rehabilitate the name of Zerov – a distinguished literary scholar, lecturer, and poet-translator.</span> <span lang="EN-US">The syllabus on General Methodology of Translation outlined by professor Kalynovych was found earlier in the same Archives and published in 2015. However, this article pioneers its presentation and analysis in mutual complementarity with the syllabus by Zerov.&nbsp; &nbsp;</span></p> Lada Kolomiyets Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/371 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Methodological Framework for the Interdisciplinary Literary Text Analysis https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/372 <p>All scientific endeavours require researchers to develop an understanding of the available methodological tools to perform the needed studies. These tools can be applied depending on the field, purpose and context of the study. This article outlines and argues for ways to construct methodological framework appropriate for an in-depth interdisciplinary analysis of a literary text. The purpose of this study is to build the interdisciplinary methodological framework for literary text analysis using approaches of two humanities sciences – pedagogy and philology (linguistics and literature). The material for the research is a contemporary fairy tale <em>Bunny Non-Hopper and His Brave Mommy</em> by Oksana Drachkovska, Ukrainian writer and journalist. Relevance, innovation, importance and complexity of the author’s fairy tale theme, which appears both in the field of modern pedagogy and current philological interpretations justified our choice. Among the methods applied in the paper are literary studies interpretation that outlines a place of the fairy tale in the context of similar Ukrainian and foreign literature and reveals features of the its gender constructions; linguistic analysis based on communicative-pragmatic and conceptual approaches that focus on the text-discursive level along with pedagogical approaches that enable the representation of the text’s educational potential.&nbsp;The suggested framework consists of two levels – general scientific and specific scientific. On the general scientific level, it deploys systematic, synergetic, and paradigmatic approaches, whereas on the specific scientific level – linguistic approaches (communicative pragmatic and conceptual), literary studies approaches (intertextual and gender), and pedagogical approaches (integrated, inclusive, humanistic, empowerment), thus employing knowledge and specifics of each science. Besides a system-building function aimed to obtain comprehensive information about the object of the study, the proposed methodological framework for the interdisciplinary literary text analysis embraces an anthropocentric paradigm centred on children with special educational needs.</p> Bohdana Labinska, Iryna Osovska, Oxana Matiychuk, Nataliia Vyspinska Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/372 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Managing Knowledge at the Time of Artificial Intelligence: An Explorative Study with Knowledge Workers https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/373 <p class="Abstract">In the evolutionary context of Industry 4.0, where machine learning and machine to machine technology are powerful tools for the maintenance and replicability of knowledge, the implementation of hybrid systems based on the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents the key to organizational innovation and to the capitalization of knowledge. At the same time, the benefits of digital transformation for individuals and teams are often not so clear - and uncertainty surrounding the future often results in fear in those being impacted. Fear of changes to their job, fear of a job role change, job losses, being faced with learning new skills, new technology or new ways of working. Therefore, to secure the transition to the digitization organizations need to carefully support their human resources and to provide them with the reasons why they need to commit to change.&nbsp;In this perspective, the study aimed to investigate how high-qualified knowledge workers cope with this new situation. Yet, participants were a group of project managers, employed in some knowledge-based organizations, in which AI and digitalization systems are going to be introduced to improve replicability, circulation and storage of knowledge. The choice of this peculiar target of participants was guided by the acknowledgement of their important role within the organization, being project managers generally considered as agents of change. In view of the above, the main goal was to collect project managers’ expectations and fears about the upcoming integration of secularized company flows with performing process automation strategies. In-depth individual interviews were conducted and diatextual analysis was used to approach the discursive data collected. Results showed interesting insights both in terms of organizational management implications as well as of future research development. Participants showed clear awareness about the need to “go digital” to improve organizational performance and to stay competitive. However, they underlined the importance of parallel invest on human capital, improving crucial soft skills such as: openness to change, flexibility and the ability to work in a team, that could concretely support digital changes in procedures and work processes.&nbsp;</p> <p class="Abstract">&nbsp;</p> Amelia Manuti, Dalila Monachino Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/373 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Verbal Expression of Preparedness in Retirement Planning Interviews https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/374 <p>Conceptualization of retirement requires interdisciplinary research, which is represented by psycholinguistic approach in the present paper. The study takes a first step to explore conceptualization of retirement by individuals with different levels of retirement preparedness. The study applies questionnaire <em>Psychological Preparedness for Retirement</em> (Zasiekina &amp; Mahdysiuk, 2018) to assess levels of preparedness; semi-structured interviews to focus primarily on concerns related to planning postretirement period; Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) (Tausczik &amp; Pennebaker, 2010) to reveal psychological categories and explore conceptualization of retirement.&nbsp; By the end of the assessment, data had been collected from 117 workers who were at preretirement period. The sample was weighted by age and occupation in order to improve its representative of the total population 22 (18.8%) – university staff, teachers at colleges, 18 (15.4%), nurses in kindergartens, 8 (6.6%), healthcare staff, 18 (15.4%), government officials, 28 (23.9%), workers from private sector, 23 (19.7%). The final weighted sample includes 65.8% females, average age 54.52, (SD=6.21). The results indicate that 8.5% respondents have a low level of preparedness, 61.5% - a medium level of preparedness and 30% - a high level of preparedness. Interestingly, the highest percentage of categories of <em>affect </em>and <em>positive emotions</em> were observed in the group with a medium level of preparedness, whereas the highest percentage of categories <em>cause</em>, <em>focus on present, and family </em>were captured in the group with a high level of preparedness. Taken together, these results suggest that the high level of retirement preparedness is associated with active cognitive reappraisal of retirement as a period of family activities.</p> Liudmyla Mahdysiuk, Halyna Tryhub, Tamara Duchiminska, Anna Kulchytska, Larysa Zasiekina Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/374 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Font and Colour Attributes as Manipulated in Mass Media Texts: Psycholinguistic Implications https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/375 <p>This paper is aimed to analyse font and colour as non-verbal and paralingual components which have the capacity to influence and manipulate recipients of a message. On the basis of an extensive body of illustrative material, it has been established that by the use of colour variation, a single text fragment may be interpreted in several different ways, and may also be perceived differently by men and by women. It is demonstrated that colour and font characteristics are not exclusively graphic shells whose function is merely to record an oral statement in writing. They are semantically significant and multifunctional. It has been determined that font and colour are form-creating elements, which make possible the graphic reproduction of objects in everyday use, objects relating to reality and actuality. Variation in font and colour enable us to hypothesize that the mass media communication space is now characterized by a type of linguistic play utilizing these traits so as to render possible the projection of multiple-reading promotional texts. They also permit an economy in terms of space because of the fact that font techniques can perform formative and content functions simultaneously. Based on an experiment involving 60 participants, 30 of whom were male and 30 female, it was found that the information encoded in colour and font graphics shells is not difficult to perceive and to decipher. However, the survey found that women are more likely to perceive that information, although the difference in perception is not striking. When&nbsp; asked whether a sample of illustrative material stirred an appetite by using stylized fonts consisting of foods to convey a food-related message, 74 % of men and 37% of women in both articles answered in the positive, which in our study confirms the claim that food advertising promotes appetite arousal. The study also showed that most women who read the information perceive it holistically–their attention is not attracted solely by verbal and nonverbal components. On the other hand, only half of the men surveyed saw it as a whole, and almost a third of them initially noticed the verbal components first. Most participants in the experiment claimed that it took them from 5 to 10 seconds to realize that a single message could be read in several different ways. The participants who took part confirm that a single text string can be interpreted in multiple ways due to the font and colour attributes that are utilized in forming them.</p> Larysa Makaruk Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/375 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Verbal Markers of the Concept of Peace: Psycholinguistic and Lexical Analyses https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/376 <p>The paper is an attempt to uncover the associative semantics of the concept of ‘Peace’ as reflected in the Ukrainian national linguistic world image. The goal of the article is to carry out a psycholinguistic analysis of the concept’s verbal markers and to compare its associative and lexical meanings at the current stage of the Ukrainian language development. Free word association test involved 148 first- and second-year students of Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University (Ukraine), Faculty of Philology and Journalism, Ukrainian native speakers aged 18-20. It has been proved that responses related to common lexical meanings of the word-stimulus ‘Peace’ recorded in modern explanatory dictionaries are predominant. 105 words-responses have become the object of the analysis – 329 word-tokens in total, out of which 44 words have been used two times or more (from 2 to 59 times –268 word-tokens in total), 61 words have been used one time only. The received responses have been differentiated according to semantic and grammatical criteria. Traditional responses which coincide with the common lexical meaning, as well as new original responses which reflect the respondents’ individual experience and are non-typical (not recorded in the dictionaries), were received. The semantic principle of the concept of ‘Peace’ words-markers’ systematization was used as the basis of forming 11 lexical semantic groups. Among the most numerous are the names related to the state of environment, people’s inner world, their physical, emotional and mental state, moral and aesthetic properties (47.1%); names that verbalize relations between people, nations, states (31.9%). The groups of semantically distant responses are mainly represented by the names of concrete names, less frequently – by the names of abstract concepts and integral syntactic structures, which have no relation to any of the lexical meanings recorded in lexicographic sources. Their semantic ties can be traced at the unconscious level which reflects the psycholinguistic meaning of this word. The conducted word association test enabled defining the extension of the concept’s psycholinguistic meaning and thus to record new fragments of the Ukrainian linguistic world image caused by historical, political, and national mental processes.</p> Iryna Melnyk, Larysa Holoiukh, Diana Kalishchuk, Iryna Levchuk Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/376 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptation, Association, and Analogy: Triple A of the Translator’s Decision-Making https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/383 <p>The article is dedicated to the analysis of concurrent verbalizations (also known as Think-Aloud Protocols, or TAPs) of semi-professional subjects of the introspective experiment based on the initial excerpt of Steven Brust’s fantasy novel <em>The Desecrator</em>. The research was conducted on the basis of activity-oriented approach within which translation is treated as an integrated cognitive process that unites perceptive, interpretative and productive operations. The participants of the experiment were students for Master’s Degree in Translation at the School of Foreign Languages of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. The choice was determined by the fact that the subjects of this type have a high level of a foreign language competence as well as sufficient theoretical background in translation, while, at the same time, they lack practical experience which requires from them considerable psycho-cognitive and creative effort for decision-making in ambiguous situations. The aim of the research is to determine the role of adaptation, association and analogy in resolving problem situations in translation. Adaptation, association and analogy were highlighted as both psychological mechanisms and cognitive procedures of the translator’s decision-making. The psychological function of adaptation lies in bringing the translator to the state of adaptivity by applying available knowledge to new situations; its cognitive function lies in adjusting new or alien to the target audience concepts in accordance with the translator’s individual worldview. Psycho-cognitive function of association is twofold: firstly, the translator is expected to decipher and reproduce associations underlying the author’s decisions; secondly, the translator’s own decisions are often of associative nature. Analogical reasonings substantiate the translator’s choices through similarity-based heuristics, like those of representativeness and compatibility. The research allowed to expose some varieties of psycho-cognitive mistakes and to express the assumption that the translator’s erroneous decisions are ensued by the malfunctioning of the above mechanisms, i.e. by incorrect adaptations, associations, analogies.</p> Oleksandr Rebrii, Vladyslava Demetska Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/383 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Structure of Basic Level Categories in the Ukrainians’ Consciousness According to the Results of Psycholinguistic Experiments: PARKAN and MUR https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/384 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this research is to identify experimentally the structure (primarily the central zone) of two basic level categories in the Ukrainian speakers minds: PARKAN and MUR. To rich such an aim, two psycholinguistic experiments were developed and conducted. Within the first experiment the respondents were asked to determine whether the object on the picture belongs to the category PARKAN. Within the second one they were asked to determine whether the object on the picture belongs to the category MUR. For each experiment 75 images of the objects with similar functions and perceptual features were selected. The respondents had to choose integers 1-2-3 under the image, where 3 means that the object enters into the category, and 1 means that the object doesn't enter into the category. In the options of responses there was the possibility of partial and complete discrepancy between the word that names the category and the image. The total number of completed Google forms is 846, the total number of the received responses - 12690. The second experiment also took into account the estimates of the respondents from the control group which included 18 historians, architects and restorers. The scaling method was used to process the results: each object received an average score which determined its place in the structure of the category. The central zone of both categories includes objects with a score of 2.75 and higher. By analyzing the perceptual and functional features of the objects of the central zone we have formed a verbal description of the prototypes of the categories PARKAN and MUR. During the processing of experimental data there were found the differences in the principles of formation of the central zones of categories. This is related to the role of these objects in the modern anthropogenic landscape. The assignment of a certain artifact to the category PARKAN is influenced by two factors: perceptual features and function that a person derives from external features due to his/her background knowledge. When categorizing an object as a typical MUR not only perceptual features and function are important, but also information that goes beyond current knowledge about the world, namely knowledge about the status and functions of reality in the past. It is believed that information about the cultural and historical role of reality occupies an important place in the structure of the concept but our research has shown that such knowledge can affect the content and structure of not only concepts but also categories of consciousness.</span></p> Marharyta Zhuykova , Liliia Lavrynovych , Olha Svidzynska Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/384 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Book Review https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/386 <p><strong>Invaluable Contribution to the Treasury of Translation Science</strong></p> <p><strong>Енциклопедія перекладознавства / пер. з англ., за ред. О.А.&nbsp;Кальниченка та Л.М.&nbsp;Черноватого. Том 1. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2020. 552 с.</strong></p> <p>Reviewed by <strong>Tatiana Andrienko</strong></p> <p>This year, 2020, has been marked by an outstanding event, long awaited by scholarly, linguistic and literary community: Volume 1 of <em>Translation Encyclopedia</em> edited by Oleksandr Kalnychenko and Leonid Chernovaty was published in Ukrainian by Nova Knyha Publishers, Vinnytsia, Ukraine. The book has seen light thanks to the leadership of the <em>Ukrainian Translator Trainers’ Union (UTTU)</em> headed by Dr. Leonid Chernovaty, as well as talents and efforts of a highly qualified team of translators and translation professors from major universities of Ukraine. It comprises a translation of <em>The</em> <em>Handbook of Translation Studies</em> (edited by Yves Gambier, Luc van Doorslaer, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010).</p> <p>By the depth of insights into problems, the variety of addressed topics, clarity and persuasiveness of argumentation, openness to innovation, as well as historical and geographical frameworks the reviewed book is definite to find its place among the major humanitarian publications, considerably broadening the horizons of Ukrainian scholars, students, and thinkers.</p> <p>The collection presents a wide range of articles summarizing the newest concepts and trends of Translation Studies, such as adaptation, self-translation, censorship, community and conference interpreting, technical translation, terminology and translation, multilingualism and translation, etc. Through the authors’ perspectives, the reader may follow the dynamics of changes in the content of translation science and its various approaches (descriptive, applied, interpretive, cognitive, functional) and its major concepts (such as translation quality, relevance, norms, units, strategies and tactics).</p> <p>Of great interest to the audience will be the scope of interdisciplinary fields, such as history of translation, translation didactics, ethics of translation, as well as articles unveiling the links of translation studies with semantics, semiotics, philosophy, hermeneutics, journalism, gender factors, ethics, sociology, ethnography and art. The Encyclopedia also embraces such fields of literary translation as postcolonial literature, censorship, children's literature, translating plays, humor and comics; it outlines the problems of industry-specific (political, technical, commercial, scientific, religious, legal translation, media interpreting) and even sign language translation. Much attention is devoted to practical applications of the latest translation research, as well as new technologies in translation, research and teaching translation methodologies, as well as the role of translation in foreign language teaching.</p> <p>The concepts and ideas in the book are presented by the outstanding translation theorists, many of whom are the authors and conceivers of new theories of translation and their major research fields: <em>Fabio Alves &amp; Amparo Hurtado Albir, </em>Jorge Díaz Cintas, <em>Riitta Jääskeläinen, Marianne Lederer, Jeremy Munday, Christiane Nord,</em> <em>Franz Pöchhacke, </em>Christina Schäffner and others. A valuable feature of the ideas covered in the Encyclopedia is their openness to plurality of scholarly opinions, continuous dialogue over the major problems of translation theory and practice, which involves the reader into discussion and inspires the further search for solutions.</p> <p>The translation of the original theoretical insights into Ukrainian by seasoned scholars, professional translators and translation teachers will, first and foremost, open them to a broader audience, making their content more accessible and perceivable to the readers. But what is more important, it develops the conceptual network of translatology, enriching the Ukrainian terminology, and expanding the borders of the Ukrainian language scientific style. Besides being an invaluable source of theoretical knowledge, the book is also an exemplary application of theory into practice, a guide to the state-of-art choice of translation strategies, tactics and decisions, a model scientific translation to be emulated by practicing and aspiring translators.</p> <p>The 1st volume of <em>Translation Encyclopedia</em>, edited by Oleksandr Kalnychenko and Leonid Chernovaty will definitely find equally high acclaim of professors and students, theorists and practitioners, seasoned and aspiring scholars of translation and relevant fields. Welcoming the new pioneering publication, we strongly believe that it will initiate a tradition of publishing translated scholarly works in Ukraine, and look forward to the appearance of new volumes.</p> Tatiana Andrienko Copyright (c) East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/386 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000