East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl <p><strong>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</strong> is an international&nbsp;<a href="http://eepl.at.ua/index/licensing/0-13">open access</a>&nbsp;peer-reviewed academic periodical published semiannually in June and December with both online and print versions.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for scholars to share, foster, and discuss globally various new topics and advances in different fields of modern psycholinguistics. The journal publishes original manuscripts covering but not limited to the following theoretical and applied fields of psycholinguistics, including neurolinguistics, cognitive psychology, psychology of language, translation studies.</p> en-US psycholing@vnu.edu.ua (Serhii Zasiekin) Hordovska.Tetiana@vnu.edu.ua (Tetiana Hordovska) Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Genesis of Understanding Internet Texts by Ukrainian Adolescents Depending on Their Internet Using Experience https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/520 <p><span lang="EN-US">The article presents the results of studying the&nbsp;</span>genesis of the Internet text understanding&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">by young readers&nbsp;</span>depending&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">on the level of their Internet user experience. The investigation reveals the regularities of the dynamics of success</span><span lang="EN-GB">ful</span><span lang="EN-US"> understanding with the growth of the level of the Internet user experience at each stage of the comprehension process. For this purpose, the following methods were used: theoretical (deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization), empirical (experiment, method of semantic and pragmatic interpretations, content analysis, subjective scaling), and statistical (primary statistics, correlation analysis). The sample of the experiment consisted of 122 Ukrainian undergraduate students, including 14.8% men and 85.2% women. The study was conducted according to the author's methods "Success of understanding the texts of the Internet" and "Experience and focus of the Internet user". The understanding of Internet texts by adolescents is characterized by the activity of reception (indicating their significant interest in cyberspace), superficial assessment of the text complexity, and the tendency to predict the content by title and illustration. Meanwhile, it represents that the quality of rational and emotional text interpretation is quite low. Young people interpret only a quarter of the content of the message since their emotional understanding is usually inconsistent. However, a rational assessment is more accurate than an emotional one at this age. It is concluded that adolescents' genesis of Internet text understanding depends on their Internet user experience. Under the influence of the Internet user experience, the activity of the reception, the accuracy of expectations according to the illustration, and the consistency of emotional attitudes increase. However, the accumulation of experience sometimes has a negative effect on the dynamics of understanding, in particular on the interpretation of Internet news texts that seem unreasonably simple to young users. It is also recorded that at the stage of emotional identification, the rational evaluation of Internet texts with the accumulation of experience deteriorates. This feature is determined by the effect of unjustified confidence of Internet users.</span></p> Nataliia Akimova Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/520 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psycholinguistic Aspects of the Development of Students’ Critical Approach to the Solution of Terminological Problems in Online Translation Learning https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/522 <p><span lang="EN-CA">The research is aimed at exploring the</span><span lang="EN-US"> approaches to increase the efficiency of the development of the future translators’ critical approach to the solution of terminological problems, </span><span lang="EN-US">as well as the specialized bilingual (English and Ukrainian) terminology acquisition, in online teaching and learning. </span><span lang="EN-CA">The method of research is based on the assumption that the said increase can be achieved through the intensification of the students’ analytical and thinking activity in their independent work by means of post-editing the machine-translated target texts combined with the simultaneous written explanation of the reasons for the respective corrections. This assumption was tested</span> <span lang="EN-US">in the pilot experimental online teaching of specialised (in the domain of Psychology) translation to the </span><span lang="EN-CA">first-year MA students majoring in Translation. </span><span lang="EN-US">The participants’ performance assessment took into account the amount of the independent work done by them, the level of their critical approach, as well as the specialised terminology usage accuracy in the final translation test. </span><span lang="EN-CA">The results of the analysis proved the apparent dependence of the participants’ </span><span lang="EN-US">critical approach to the solution of terminological problems and the efficiency of specialised terminology acquisition on the intensity of their </span><span lang="EN-CA">analytical and thinking activity in their independent work. The advantage of the participants with the highest level of the said intensity over those with the average one amounted to 16%, and 40% – over those with the lowest intensity. </span><span lang="EN-CA">The efficiency of the development of students’</span><span lang="EN-US"> critical approach to the solution of terminological problems and the specialised terminology acquisition in online translation teaching and learning may be increased by intensification of their </span><span lang="EN-CA">analytical and thinking activity in the process of meaningful post-editing of machine-translated target texts. </span><span lang="EN-CA">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> Leonid Chernovaty, Natalia Kovalchuk Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/522 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Formative Assessment on Students’ Motivation in Foreign Language Acquisition https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/523 <p>The article focuses on introducing formative assessment to the educational process of professionally oriented English communication and the impact of assessment on students’ motivation to learn English. In the article, various types of motivation are discussed; high and low levels of formative assessment are presented; the relationship between motivation and assessment in learning English is studied. The model of high and low levels of formative assessment implementation in learning English for professional communication is tested. The levels of students’ motivation to English acquisition in the conditions of low and high levels of formative assessment are compared. Special attention is paid to specific pedagogical conditions under which formative assessment has a greater impact on students’ motivation. Experimental training was conducted among students of the pedagogical university who study English for professional communication. The authors compare and analyze the results of the motivation tests and diagnostic tests of language proficiency at the pre- and post- stages of experimental training. The study supports the idea about the relationship between students’ motivation and their English language proficiency assessment. The results show that a high level of formative assessment can be beneficial for overcoming students’ low motivation if students receive immediate feedback, evaluation of their work, teachers’ recommendations and support. It is observed that the reasonable integration of students’ self-assessment into teachers’ formative assessment plays a vital role in increasing students’ motivation to English acquisition. According to the study, regular practical implementation of high-level formative assessment methods in English acquisition increases the level of students’ motivation and, consequently, the level of students’ achievements in mastering professionally oriented English communication.</p> Natalia Dmitrenko, Iuliia Budas, Yulia Koliadych, Nina Poliarush Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/523 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Psycholinguistic Cross-Cultural Study of the Concept 'Conflict' in India and Ukraine https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/525 <p>The paper presents a comparative study of the semantic field of the concept of conflict in Ukrainian and Indian cultures. The literature review has shown that there has not been any discussion on the abstract general concept of <em>conflict</em>. However, we consider such data exceptionally important for a better understanding of the worldview and cultural differences in diverse countries. Our study aimed to identify cultural features, similarities, and differences in the perception of the concept of conflict by representatives of various cultures. To investigate the way the concept of conflict is perceived, we used a set of methods, including speech activity analysis, free-listing for data gathering and processing, mathematical calculation, systematization, and generalization of results We conducted our study in three phases: at the first stage we gathered data, at the second we processed them, and at the third phase we generalized the findings and drawing conclusions. The students from Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Ukraine) and Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India) participated in the research (19-24years old). In general, we got 292 questionnaires. The experiment revealed that the common semantic core of the concept of conflict in Ukrainian and Indian cultures contains seven words: fight, misunderstanding, war, disagreement, quarrel, struggle, aggression. But in contrast to the Ukrainian culture, in India, the associations with the given concept predominantly depict the person’s emotional state (sadness, anger, fear, confusion, and misunderstanding). Participants from India also mention caste discrimination and religious diversity. In Ukraine, the word conflict is much associated with negative interaction (quarrel, aggression, argument, dispute, etc.). Besides, in contrast to the Indian culture, there are no associations with social discrimination and religious diversity. The importance of our findings cannot be stressed too much since they can potentially be used in mediation, social advertising, and international negotiations.</p> Andriy Girnyk , Yuliya Krylova-Grek , Azizuddin Khan Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/525 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Para-Romani in Scandinavia https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/526 <p>The study of Language Contact has come very much to the fore in sociolinguistics in recent years, and it is not surprising that Romani, a diaspora language, should receive a good share of attention. Since its very departure from India a millennium ago, its speakers have encountered and interacted with speakers of dozens of other languages, all of which have left their mark. The most extreme cases are the so-called Para-Romani varieties, which have demanded the question, are they Romani with massive non-Romani intrusion, or are they non-Romani languages with more or less Romani intrusion? This is addressed in the following article, which deals with one such para-language, called here Scandoromani. Other para-Romani languages are Angloromani, Scottish Romani, Spanish Romani (Caló), Finish Romani (Kále). Paralanguages are used for communication between members of different language and cultural communities. The paralanguages of Romani are not so well-investigated and described, and the present study brings a new light to the field of Romani linguistics. Para-Romani languages are divided into two big groups: based on Indo-European and based on non-Indo-European languages. In this case the Scandoromani is based on Indo-European languages and the Crimean-Romani (in Ukraine based on Crimean Tatar) and Kurbetcha (in Cyprus based on Turkish) are based on non-Indo-European languages. The Para-Romani varieties in Europe are preserved through communication between elder generations and children and thousands of children around Europe learn their mother tongue – the variety of Para-Romani through the transmission form parents to children. This gives the hope that those varieties will not despair.</p> Ian Hancock Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/526 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vowel Production in Aphasia: Preliminary Acoustic Findings from Arabic https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/527 <p>The present study examined the temporal and spectral characteristics of vowels produced by Palestinian Arabic- speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia compared to healthy speakers. Specifically, vowel duration and formant frequency measures (F1&amp;F2) were made. eight speakers with Broca’s aphasia and eight healthy speakers participated in the study. Repetition was used to elicit the target vowels to minimize language comprehension or reading difficulties by the individuals with Broca’s aphasia. The speech sample contains the long vowels (/a:,u:,i:/) embedded in CVC words with nasal initials. Statistical analysis was used to determine any significant differences concerning the formant values (F1/F2) between the speaker groups. Findings showed that speakers with Broca’s aphasia produced vowel categories with more variability than healthy speakers. For some, formant frequencies were comparable with those of the healthy speakers, and yet others showed an overlap of phonetic categories. Specifically, F1 and F2 for the vowel /u:/ were higher for individuals with Broca’s aphasia compared to normal-speaking individuals, but they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, although speakers with Broca’s aphasia produced longer vowel durations than the healthy speakers, they were not significantly different between speaker groups except for the vowel /i:/. Reduced vowel space was also observed in speakers with Broca’s aphasia. The vowel ellipses as shown by speakers with Broca’s aphasia were larger than those of healthy speakers. Results support previous studies showing abnormal temporal durations and spectral patterns in Broca’s aphasia. Findings can contribute to cross-linguistic research on vowel production in aphasia, mainly in understudied languages such as Arabic.</p> Adam Hisham Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/527 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Translation Aspects of Implied Sense As a Psycholinguistic Category https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/528 <p>The article aims to identify some implied sense markers in the poetic text to draw translators' attention to their reproduction and scholars of translation on their analysis. The study of the creation, decoding, and translation of implied sense as a constituent of a poem's macro-image structure in general, and with the untranslatable form of poetical implied sense based on Anglicism dispersion in the text of the American verse in particular, contributes to a better perception of the original poem and promotes finding ways of its adequate reconstruction in translation. This paper pioneers the idea that poetic implied sense as a psycholinguistic category is interpreted as making primary content of a poem and is considered a dominant image in poetic translation. Semantic context significance in poetic implied sense interpretation and translation are revealed. The presence of implied sense in poems is characterized by the text markers that help disclose it and direct translators. Poetical implied sense is determined as implied sense image functioning within a poem macro-image structure. Implied sense image decoding and rendering requires prior examination of the system of inner textual and extra-textual context relationships and psycholinguistic aspects of poetic discourse. Among the main tools applied in this study is the method of macro-analysis of a poetic work, which involves comparison of the original and translation at the level of autosemantic, synsemantic and subsemantic (implied sense) images and, in particular, text analysis to identify purely linguistic and psycholinguistic implied sense markers for its decoding and reproduction in translation, and factor analysis (principal components method) to determine the features of the semantics of the poetic original and translated texts. As a result of this research, it is discovered that signals-markers of the poetic implied sense are simultaneous actualization of the meanings of the same word and scattered inclusions of Anglicisms in American verse, which form an implied sense that is difficult to translate.</p> Valeriy Kykot Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/528 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Literacy Development of Roma Children in L2: A Comparative Psycholinguistic Study https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/546 <p>The paper presents results from a comparative empirical L1 / L2 literacy study with first-grade Roma and non-Roma children, resident in Bulgaria and Slovakia.&nbsp;The Roma children growing up in traditional communities are socialized through the rich oral culture surrounding them. In the extended Roma families, the care of the children is responsibility of everyone. In such a rich speech environment, the children learn their mother tongue. However, the oral skills of Roma children acquired in the home environment are not used at all in the process of literacy development in their L2 at primary school, neither in Bulgaria nor in Slovakia. Bialystok (2007) says that the oral skills of bilingual children in their L1 and L2 play an important role in the preparation for literacy. The Roma children’s oral skills in their L1 are not further developed at the primary school level and their L2 oral skills are initially often very limited.&nbsp;60 first-grade children (20 Roma and 40 non-Roma children) were tested using the RAN Test at the end of the school year, in Bulgarian and Slovak. Various aspects, including comparative differences in literacy performance between Roma children tested in Bulgaria and Slovakia, are discussed in detail. The findings show that (1) the time for naming the RAN Test in L2 can be used as a predictor for the children’s literacy level in L2; (2) A low level of language competence of the children in their L1 appears congruent with a low literacy proficiency in L2; (3) The place of residence of the children appears to be a factor influencing the performance by Roma children in the RAN Test. The Roma children from the village have better results than Roma children living in the city. The level of oral proficiency in L1 of Roma children influences the timing of the naming of the RAN Test in L2. The Roma children resident in town have a more isolated life and do not possess such a rich vocabulary in their mother tongue. The children living in a village have more daily contact with non-Roma Bulgarians, for example, and thus develop a richer vocabulary in their&nbsp;mother tongue as well.</p> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) 2021 Hristo Kyuchukov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/546 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 07:08:56 +0000 Gendered Existence? Existential-There Construction in English-Polish Translation https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/529 <p>This paper analyses a possible effect of the variable of gender on semantic enrichment of existential sentences translated from English to Polish. Existential-<em>there</em> clauses in English typically take the form <em>there </em>+ be + indefinite NP (+place/time adverbial). Since <em>there-</em>constructions lack a structurally congruent counterpart in Polish, they can be rendered in Polish with several syntactic constructions ranging from the verb ‘być’ (E. to be) through ‘mieć’ (E. to have) to verbs semantically richer than ‘być’ (e.g., verbs of perception, verbs of location, etc). We ask the question of whether the gender factor is correlated with the factor of text type/genre. To this purpose, we compiled a corpus of English texts representing belles-lettres and popular science writing, male-authored, female-authored and multi-authored and translated by male and female translators. Our preliminary results show that the choice of&nbsp; Polish translations of English existentia<em>l-there</em> follows from the interplay of genre, narrative/descriptive modes of text, and the gender of the translator, with female translators tending to replace the simple copula ‘be’ with a full lexical verb more often than male translators in dialogic parts of belle-lettres.</p> Andrzej Łyda Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/529 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Representation of the Rules for Living in Personal Narratives of Adolescents with Hearing Impairments https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/530 <p>The article is focused on the study of personal narratives of adolescents with hearing impairments. The aim of the study was to determine narrative indicators of respondents’ rules for living. To achieve this goal, there were analysed personal narratives of adolescents with hearing impairments. Besides, there were identified specific categories that reflect their rules for living. In addition, there was studied the level of subjective well-being of respondents and the relationship between the presentation of certain rules for living in personal narratives and the level of subjective satisfaction with life. &nbsp;The research methods were content analysis of personal narratives and subjective scaling. Statistical data processing was performed with the help of recursive division trees method. The results of the study show that rules for living typical for adolescents with hearing impairments are reflected in their narratives and can be divided into three groups. The first group includes self-focusing rules, the second – focusing on others, and the third – focusing on the out-world. Each of these groups is divided into two subgroups, and each subgroup includes the behaviour of supercompensation or avoidance. The most common among adolescents with hearing impairments are rules for living related to the focusing on others and self-focusing both by the type of avoidance. At the same time, the highest level of subjective satisfaction with life is connected with self-focusing rules for living by type of supercompensation<em>. </em>The obtained data allow us to conclude that the analysis of personal narratives of adolescents with hearing impairments allows to determine their rules for living. On the other hand, typical rules for living determine the level of person’s subjective well-being. Prospects for further researches in this area are to study the representation in adolescents’ narratives not only separate rules for living, but also core beliefs, the existence of which is ensured by these rules.</p> Olena Lytvynenko Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/530 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Verbal Indicators of Personal Identity in The Road Past Altamont by Gabrielle Roy https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/533 <p>The present paper explores personal identity linguistic indicators detected in <em>The Road Past Altamont</em> by Gabrielle Roy. Works by this Canadian writer, public personality, and significant figure in French Canadian literature are of interest to a broad audience today in Canada, where almost all her books have been translated into English, and abroad. Written in a fluid, spare style, they are distinguished by lively narration and a keen sense of observation. Her literature approaches the world and people with clear sight and compassion. <em>The Road Past Altamont</em> (1966) by Roy is one of the most original in Canada, as varied as it is cohesive. The novel is dedicated to the coverage of the autobiographical narrative, the peculiarities of the personal identity crisis for different age groups, the succession of generations. These existential problems are actualized in crisis life situations. Despite containing four independent texts, <em>The Road Past Altamont</em>, each of which tells a finished story, is not a collection of short stories but a novel-saga. Its genre is both fragmented and unified, and it has a flexible structure based on the concept of the human life course. The four stories in this novel are connected not only by the main character at different points in her life but also by the themes that explore the changes, ageing, and society’s relation to the elders. The study aims to single out verbal indicators of personal identity obtained from the second part, “The old man and the child” of the Roy’s novel and the music album of the same name, created on its basis in 2021. Among the main findings are the defining psycholinguistic markers of time and space in the discourse of “The old man and the child” that encompass personal identity cognitive component. Hence, it is possible to treat the transformation of identity in the modern world in terms of constructing “self” as a reflexive project - implementing an integral, biographical story being changed in a polyvariant context of choice.</p> Svitlana Kuzikova, Anton Vertel , Valeriy Zlyvkov, Svitlana Lukomska Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/533 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Contrastive Psycholinguistic Study of the British Emotional Concept 'Envy' and Ukrainian 'Zazdrist’': Particularities of Phraseological Objectification https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/535 <p>The article focuses on exploring the phraseological objectification of the “sinful” emotional concepts Brit. ENVY and Ukr. ЗАЗДРІСТЬ in the remotely related lingual cultures (British and Ukrainian). To identify common and distinctive senses of these concepts (1) the range of the concepts that closely correlate to the discussed emotional concepts was defined and (2) the system of conceptual metaphors representing these concepts was revealed. The material involves 253 phraseological units (PUs) that denote envy in the English language and 309 PUs in Ukrainian. The material is selected from authoritative explanatory, bilingual and phraseological dictionaries. The contrastive research of the concepts ENVY &amp; ЗАЗДРІСТЬ that correlate with other ethical and emotional concepts (e.g.: GRATITUDE, KINDNESS, VIRTUE, HONOUR) makes it possible to speak about the concurrence of fundamental moral values and attitudes in Christian cultures. Moreover, the concepts ENVY &amp; ЗАЗДРІСТЬ figure prominently in the hierarchy of values (“white” envy) vs. disvalues (“black” envy) of the contrasted lingual cultures. The conceptual metaphors provide the concept ENVY with the meanings that are considered to be specific for the lingual culture under study. Our findings show that despite the universal character of envy both as an emotion and a feeling, it is permanently affected by ethnic and socio-cultural factors that provide the concepts ENVY &amp; ЗАЗДРІСТЬ with specific lingual cultural meanings. It is noteworthy that the study of the PUs can reveal only the traditional (fixed) understanding of envy. Therefore, to detect the changes in the modern priorities of the British and Ukrainians, it is necessary for prospective research to compare the results of the language material (lexicographic and phraseographic resources) with the results of analysis of actual language data, i.e. psycholinguistic experiments, sociolinguistic monitoring, language corpora.</p> Kostiantyn Mizin, Liudmyla Slavova, Oleksandr Petrov Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/535 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Expressed Emotion in the Illness Narratives of Individuals with Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/536 <p>While expressed emotion has long been considered a valid predictor of a poor clinical outcome in individuals with mental and physical conditions, the present study marks the empirical investigation to assess specific communication patterns between family members and individuals with chronic gastrointestinal disorders.&nbsp;Following a rich tradition of studying illness narratives and a narrative approach to healing chronic illnesses, the present study examined illness narratives in a group of 40 mid-life adults with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Two reliable, independent experts unfamiliar with the participants' research objectives and diagnostic status coded all narratives&nbsp; (ICC = 0.77).&nbsp;Self-narratives describing the illness and its impact on the family life were analyzed for a set of narrative elements, including agency, communion fulfilment, and narrative coherence. In addition, the study applies measures to assess expressed emotion, criticism towards family and perceived criticism towards individuals with a condition. The correlation analysis results indicate an association between agency and criticism (0.33) and perceived criticism (0.33). The main issue emerging from the multiple regression analysis findings is that agency of the narrative, criticism towards family and duration of disease taken together contribute to perceived criticism of the family towards the individual with a condition. However, a family’s criticism towards the individual with a condition is the only independent significant predictor of perceived criticism. One of the more significant findings from this study is that substantial autonomy from significant others and empowerment of individuals with a condition could worsen the family environment and have an unfavourable clinical outcome. More practical information on service users' autonomy and its impact on disease self-management would help us establish a greater accuracy.</p> Tetiana Pastryk, Zoia Kireieva, Nataliia Kordunova, Mahdalyna Lyla Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/536 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hermeneutics of Lázaro in The Labyrinth by Buero Vallejo https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/537 <p>This play contributes to a better understanding of the psychological mechanism of behavior with respect to recurrent auditory hallucinations and the traumatic origin that can cause it, such as experiencing a violent event. This causes an emotional blockage of fear in the actor, due to the defense mechanism of denial, with repercussions on memory and negative feelings of guilt and shame. The author proposes an adequate emotional management for the protagonist, Lázaro. The solution is aimed at making him dare to know the truth and accept it following current clinical psychological praxis, without taking refuge in the protection of others. In this way, he will improve and may even reduce the emotional state and the hallucination. In the analysis of the work, various contents are decoded. First, the planes of reality: the physical world, the fantasy world and the inner world of the characters. Second, the trauma lodged in the subconscious and auditory hallucination. Third, relationship of defense mechanisms, emotional intelligence and memory. Fourth, plot about love relationships. Fifth, the psychological mechanisms in favor of justice and truth. It is proposed how this drama could have contributed to the social imaginary to raise awareness about the emotional management of individuals. The results indicate that this symbolic and complex work of form and content also contributes to solving other human dilemmas such as the limitation to know reality, in addition to the feelings and emotions in the subconscious, as well as to accept them. It is discovered how to cope with an ethical sense of justice in a society in democratic transition, with still open wounds that derive from a war. Also, there is the aspiration to a humane society on the part of the author.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Beatriz Peña-Acuña Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/537 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Unconscious Memory in Acquiring New Vocabulary Using Flashcards https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/538 <p>Most people tend to memorize different things unconsciously, without even taking notice of this process. However, it comprises a vital and effective function of the human mind that requires little effort. Following this perspective, the article aims to analyze the possibility of applying this function in the language learning process, particularly in facilitating the process of memorizing new foreign words. The experiment was conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and consisted of two phases. First, three focus groups of students were to observe the flashcards alongside the translation of words for the time period of 16 weeks, unconsciously memorizing them. Then, there were two control tests to determine the effectiveness of such a learning method. The present paper also relies on the articles and research activities of numerous scholars (e.g. L. Standing, Z. Urgolites, D. Nikolic., T. Brady, T. Konkle, M. Schurgin, C. Cunningham), showcasing the effectiveness of visual memory in retaining the information for a longer period of time. These studies emphasized the associations that people make while memorizing different things. Our research posits that color flashcards with the translation of words facilitate the process of creating associations among students, ensuring high results of their memory performance. Foreign language teachers can hence use the research results to facilitate learning new words by students.</p> Mykhailo Podoliak Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/538 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 First Language Acquisition by Roma and Slovak Children https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/539 <p><span lang="EN-US">The study analyzes the context and relationships of the progress in first language acquisition by monolingual children (First language: Slovak) and Roma-Slovak bilingual children (First language: Romani), as determined by the type of Roma community in which individual children live. We conducted the research in two phases, the first at the beginning of the school year (test) and the second at the end of the school year (post-test). </span><span lang="EN-US">The OOS image-vocabulary test as a psychological toolwas used for examining children’s vocabulary and a certain dimension of their readiness for school. The standardized O-S-S tool is structured to include 30 colorful images illustrating objects, animals, and activities, which are presented to children on an individual basis (Kondáš, 2010). For the purposes of the study, the test was modified and culturally adapted for Roma children with a pairing of Romani and Slovak languages. The research set in total consists of (n = 135) children in their first year of schooling and is separated into Roma children with L1: Romani (n = 68) and Slovak children with L1: Slovak (n = 67). Subsequently, the research set of Roma children (n = 68) belong to 3 types of communities. These 3 types of communities&nbsp; are the following: type 1: municipal and urban concentrations (n = 22); type 2: settlements located on the outskirts of a city or municipality (n = 23); and type 3: settlements spatially remote or separated by a natural or artificial barrier (n = 23). </span><span lang="EN-US">To analyze the data statistically, we used the SPSS 20.0 statistical program. The results shown statistically significant differences in L1 comprehension between Roma-Slovak bilingual children from type 1, type 2, and type 3 Roma communities and, additionally, between monolingual children at the beginning and at the end of the school year. </span><span lang="EN-US">According to the first measurement at the beginning of the school year (test) and the second measurement at the end of the school year (post-test) in L1 in the case of verbs and nouns, the highest success rate was achieved by monolingual Slovak children, followed by Romani-Slovak bilingual children from type 1 communities, followed by children from type 2 communities, and the lowest success rate was achieved by children from type 3 communities. </span><span lang="EN-US">The main research problem arising from the findings is that the progress in first language acquisition by Roma-Slovak bilingual children is determined by the type of Roma community in which the child lives.</span></p> Milan Samko, Michal Čerešník, Miroslava Čerešníková Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/539 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Lexicon on Board: A MEG Study Based on Expressive Picture-Naming https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/540 <p><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">The cognitive processes associated with word retrieval and the investigation of word-picture differences </span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">are complex and not fully understood. </span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">Uttering a word entails&nbsp;orchestrating several steps as visual object recognition, accessing a lexical concept, lemma selection, lemma retrieval, accessing the morpheme(s) and generating the phonological word, and finally retrieving syllabic gestural scores and articulation. </span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">To study the mechanisms of word retrieval in lemma selection phase, we compared the </span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">three groups of monolingual, semi-bilingual and bilingual learners with respect to their topography and strength of </span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">Functional Connectivity (</span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">FC</span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">)</span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">values of the most highlighted pair of activated nodes in the time range of 0-150 ms in different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) upon application of&nbsp;the&nbsp;stimuli.</span></span> <span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">We have seen no significant difference between difference frequency bands (p &gt; 0.05) at the most highlighted FC pairs. However, we observed higher gamma values signifying the semantic activation of the word</span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">. W</span></span><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">e could not find any significant difference between the groups in terms of FC values at designated pairs of nodes signifying that different amount of exposure could not affect electrophysiological patterns in the preliminary step of word production.</span></span></p> <p><strong><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15">Acknowledgements</span></span></strong></p> <p><span class="s5"><span class="bumpedFont15"> This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (UID/PSI/01662/2019), through the national funds (PIDDAC).</span></span></p> Fatemeh Tabari Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/540 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Bohdan Lepky’s Translation Ethics Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/541 <p><span lang="EN-US">The present empirical study aims to outline ethical landmarks of Bohdan Lepky,&nbsp;the renowned Ukrainian writer and translator, in his Ukrainian translation of&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Salom</span></em><span lang="EN-US">é by Oscar Wilde. We assess the ethics of translation data defined by Kalina (2015) in terms of accuracy, impartiality, and confidentiality. In order to address these ethical issues, the study envisaged the following steps. First, source and target texts were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) computerized program based on its built-in French 2007 and Ukrainian 2015 dictionaries. Second, all 'style words' (Tausczik &amp; Pennebaker, 2010) represented by functional words, e.g., conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns that bear procedural meaning, were compared in both texts. Findings showed that the translator followed the ethical "tradition of sameness" (Wyke, 2011), being less "visible" (Venuti, 1995) in his target language version. Despite a greater number of impersonal pronouns causing slight implicitation, we observed no traces of simplification or explicitation deforming tendencies in Lepky's translated text. Similar indices of conjunctions and prepositions, and the average number of words per sentence in both texts, confirmed the accuracy of meaning and style. Although markers of oral speech (fillers) prevailed in translation, this strategy manifests his agency and attempt to be ethically "accountable" for his product in the sense of Schlesinge</span><span lang="EN-US">r</span><span lang="EN-US">’s (1989) "equalizing." This shift moves along the oral-literate continuum towards more natural, i.e., rich in pragmatic discourse markers (Schiffrin, 1989) oral communication. The LIWC psychological category of "affect" filled with emotionally charged words was less dense in the Ukrainian version, contributing both to the translator's "ethics of difference" (Venuti, 1999) and his impartiality. Thus, results of the LIWC-processed data demonstrated high ethical standards of translating Bohdan Lepky met in his Ukrainian rendition of&nbsp;</span><em><span lang="EN-US">Salom</span></em><span lang="EN-US">é by Oscar Wilde.</span></p> <p><br><strong>Acknowledgements</strong></p> <p>This research was made possible through funds from <em>The Remeza Family Research and Publications Grant 2021-2022</em>, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Alberta, Canada.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Serhii Zasiekin Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/541 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Neuropsycholinguistic Links Between Procrastination and Prospective Memory https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/542 <p>The research objective is to examine the brain activity of individuals with different levels of procrastination. The study applies EEG data analysis with different levels of linguistic stimuli complexity (letter and semantic word), allowing to change the cognitive load and register the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex while performing tasks with two different stimuli: perceptual and semantic. We registered the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex in 20 individuals (18 females, 2 males) in the shielding lightproof testing room of the Laboratory of Age Neurophysiology at Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University. This technique analyzes the dynamics of cortical electrogenesis identifies general patterns of local and spatial synchronization of biopotentials of the cerebral cortex. The findings indicate that the dynamics of cortical electrogenesis of prospective memory depends on linguistic stimuli complexity in procrastinators, associated with increased energy expenditure.&nbsp;Furthermore, the largest number of statistically significant intergroup differences in subjects with different levels of procrastination was found in the beta range of EEG, indicating the rhythm of activity. On the one hand, this rhythm of activity is dependent on the optimization of problem-solving. On the other, the increase in its power reflects cortical excitation and selective inhibition.&nbsp;Evidence consistently suggests that the complexity of the linguistic task increases the interaction of brain macrostructures in the anterior associative zone (fronto-central leads) in students with dilatory behaviour. In contrast, subjects without dilatory behaviour demonstrate only changes in spatial synchronization modulated according to the linguistic stimuli complexity.</p> Olena Zhuravlova, Oleksandr Zhuravlov, Nataliya Kozachuk, Iryna Volzhentseva, Larysa Zasiekina Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/542 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Book Review. A New Contribution to the Treasury of Translation Theory https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/544 <p>Енциклопедія перекладознавства / пер. з англ., за ред. О.А. Кальниченка&nbsp;та Л.М. Черноватого. Том 2. Вінниця : Нова книга, 2020. 280 с.</p> <p>Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. (2020). O. Kalnychenko &amp; L. Chernovaty, (Eds.). Translated form English. Volume 2. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha Publishers. 280 p.</p> <p>As a new contribution to the treasury of translation theory, Nova Knyha Publishes has presented he second volume in a series of the most influential and cutting-edge publications on translation theory and practice in Ukrainian translation. The second volume of <em>Translation Encyclopedia</em> edited by Oleksandr Kalnychenko and Leonid Chernovaty continues to introduce a variety of topics related to translation and translation studies. The publication that has aroused genuine interest of academics and practitioners all over the world is now available to the Ukrainian readers in their native language.</p> <p>It comprises a translation of 35 articles from <em>The Handbook of Translation Studies</em> (edited by Yves Gambier, Luc van Doorslaer, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011). The collection includes papers of such prominent translation theorists as Hélène Buzelin, Sherry Simon, Jeroen Vandaele, Dilek Dizdar, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Kaisa Koskinen, Sharon O’Brien, Sonia Colina, Cristina Marinetti, Kirsten Malmkjær, Vicent Montalt, James St. André, Peter Flynn and Yves Gambier, Albert Branchadell, Nike K.&nbsp;Pokorn, Barbara Ahrens, Outi Paloposki, Şehnaz Tahir Gürçağlar, Francis Jones, Cristina Valdés, Andrew Chesterman, Luc van Doorslaer, Reine Meylaerts, Cees Koster, Rachele Antonini, Gideon Toury, Carol O’Sullivan, Brian Mossop, Ritva Leppihalme, David Katan, Cecilia Wadensjö, Jean Boase-Beier, Christina Schäffner, Paul Bandia, Dirk Delabastita. Notably, the collection follows a good tradition of presenting well-known names along with the new authors of break-through ideas and original approaches.</p> <p>The book covers a wide range of theoretical issues in the field of translation. New visions and discussions of established theoretical approaches call the readers’ attention to the paradigmatic shifts that have occurred in linguistics in the recent decades – from language-focused to communication-focused and, further, human-focused translation studies. In particular, in <em>Linguistics and translation,</em>Kirsten <em>Malmkjær</em> discusses the relationship between linguistics and translation as well as linguistic theories of translation suggested by J-P. Vinay and J. Darbelnet, J.C. Catford, E-A. Gutt. Hélène Buzelin considers translation from the viewpoint of the agent in <em>Agents of translation</em>, where the concept of “agents” is discussed in relation to socio-historiographic, sociological and ethnographic paths. In <em>Comparative approaches to translation</em>, the author critically evaluates several existing theoretical methods of the comparative procedure, particularly those of Toury, Van Leuven-Zwart, Holmes.&nbsp;</p> <p>A sphere of special interest is comprised by field-specific translation research works. Aspects of different types of oral and written translation such as remote interpreting, institutional, medical, advertising, literary translation are also examined in the collection. In <em>Institutional translation</em> by Kaisa Koskinen, the “institutional translation” refers to activities or translated works within the various concrete institutions that modern societies have built to carry out their governance and control needs. The author also considers genre characteristics of institutional translation, making a valuable contribution to the sociology of translation.</p> <p>This unity of translation theory and practice is a distinctive and valuable trait of the reviewed research collection. Dirk Delabastita in <em>Literary translation</em> defines this type of translation and touches on some issues and aspects of sociolinguistics, history of literary translation. Medical translation and its genres are discussed in <em>Medical translation and interpreting</em> by Vicent Montalt.The nature of poetic text makes it challenging to translate, which has caused much debate about how these challenges should be tackled. Francis R. Jones in <em>Poetry translation</em> describes these issues, as well as the skills, working processes and professional conditions involved in translating poetry. Enriching the general translation theory, these works elaborate on the aspects that comprise translation problems encountered by practitioners.</p> <p>Much attention is devoted to discussion of practical issues encountered in translation. Of great interest to the audience will be the article <em>Realia</em> by Ritva Leppihalme. This paper explains the concept of realia, gives a classification and presents translation strategies of realia with authentic examples representing a number of language pairs. One of the most extensively researched problem in translation studies is the translation of wordplay and Jeroen Vandaele in <em>Wordplay in translation</em>makes his contribution to the scope of these studies. Besides recommendations for practitioners, such works outline new methods of analysis and prompt further insights into translation problems rooted in the differences of cognitive level – worldviews, cultural attitudes, interpretational frames. Undoubtedly the publication will stir the research interest and creative imagination of the young scholars working in the field of translation studies.</p> <p>The publication of the invaluable<em> Handbook </em>in Ukrainian is phenomenal in an array of senses: it opens the access to the research works to a broader Ukrainian-reading audience, involving the scholars and translators of other-than-English languages in discussions; it develops the Ukrainian translation terminology and respective theoretical/cognitive basis; it comprises exemplary translations which may by themselves become the subject of study, comparison and discussion.</p> <p>The publication of the second volume of <em>Translation Encyclopedia</em> (Ed. O.&nbsp;Kalnychenko and L.&nbsp;Chernovaty) cannot be overestimated: it marks a new milestone in the development of the theory and practice of translation. The book will be useful not only to students and scholars in the field of translation studies, but also to translation practitioners and researchers working in other subject fields and all who are interested in translation and interpreting. It is sure to raise the discussions of translation problems and difficulties to a new theoretical and practical level.</p> <p>Looking forward to new volumes of the <em>Translation Encyclopedia</em> in Ukrainian, we hail this publication as a remarkable and outstanding event in the history of Ukrainian translation.</p> Tetiana Andrienko, Iryna Shpeniuk Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/544 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Book Review. A New Insight into Theory of Conceptual Metaphor https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/545 <p>The author of the reviewed book is Zoltán Kövecses, a renowned cognitive linguist from Central and Central-Eastern Europe, but lesser-known from the Ukrainian academic literature. He is Emeritus Professor at Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary). He is one of the four editors of the international scholarly journal, <em>Metaphor and Symbol</em>, and he also serves on the advisory board of <em>Cognitive Linguistics</em> and several other international professional journals. He carried out research and taught as visiting lecturer at several world-famous American and European universities (e.g. the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Rutgers University, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, the University of California at Berkeley, Hamburg University, and Odense University).</p> <p>Cognitive linguistic bases of the conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) were laid down by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) in their book <em>Metaphors We Live By</em>. This was the basic work on which cognitive linguists based their further research, supplementing and refining the original ideas of linguists who can be called the fathers of this theory. In the preface, the author testifies to the theory underlying the book as follows: “I believe CMT is a theory that can provide powerful and coherent explanations for a variety of aspects of metaphor. In my judgment, no other theory is as comprehensive as CMT. It took almost forty years for CMT to reach this stage. It’s been steadily developing thanks to the many great scholars who played key roles in making it what it is today. I see the present book as just another contribution to this line of development – as an organic part of all the efforts that have been put into making it better” (p. xi).</p> <p>Besides the preface, the book is divided into eight chapters, having a special structure. In the preface, the author outlines the book, its structure and basic concept, and mentions by name all those who helped the development of his theory with their thoughts and research. He highlights two linguists in particular: “Two people have played very special roles in the course of my career as a metaphor researcher. Ray Gibbs has always been available to discuss various issues related to the field and he and his work gave me a huge amount of encouragement and inspiration. And last but definitely not least, without George Lakoff I could not have and would not have done any of my work on metaphor” (p. xiii). In the first chapter, the author presents the traditional conceptual metaphor theory, which is “standard” in his formulation, and raises some of the questions that form the basis of the following five chapters. The titles of Chapters 2-6 are thus questions that have been articulated in the author in the course of several years of research activity in connection with the theory. These are the suggestions responding to which will lead us to an extended version of the conceptual metaphor theory. Relying on his own research and that of the cognitive linguistic society, the author justifies the raison d'être of the question in each chapter and illustrates his line of thought with linguistic examples, tables and figures. The rest of the book contains two summarizing, integrating chapters (7-8), in which the author outlines the extended CMT, and then as a conclusion answers the questions discussed in the book. The publication ends in a long list of references and an index.</p> <p>In the first chapter (<em>A Brief Outline of “Standard” Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Some Outstanding Issues</em>), the author discusses the basics of CMT in detail. He emphasizes that there is no full agreement among cognitive linguists on the interpretation of the theory, but in this chapter, he focuses on those elements and features that are predominantly interpreted similarly by metaphor researchers. At the end of the chapter, the author lists problems that have arisen over the years and are waiting to be solved.</p> <p>The title of the second chapter (<em>The Abstract Understood Figuratively, the Concrete Understood Literally, but the Concrete Understood Figuratively?</em>) projects its content, its central issue, the nature of meaning. The author considers the distinction between concrete and figurative meaning to be particularly important, since, according to the definition of “standard” theory, the conceptual metaphor is based on precisely this distinction. In this chapter, the author argues that even our most concrete experiences can be interpreted figuratively and not just literally. We have a lot of concepts that we have taken over from previous generations, we understand them literally, and use them to conceptualize further abstract concepts. The notion of figuratively interpreting even our basic concrete experiences raises important questions for conceptual metaphor theory, which the author answers in turn in the chapter and then draws the following conclusion: “Thus, both concrete and abstract concepts have both embodied content ontology and figurative construal (i.e., figuratively constructed understanding) – but in different proportions. In conceptual metaphors, we have predominantly content-ontology-based concepts as source domains and predominantly figuratively-construed concepts as target domains. There are probably no pure ontology-content-based concepts and no pure figuratively-construed concepts” (p. 33).</p> <p>In the section entitled <em>Direct or Indirect Emergence</em>, the author discusses what forms the basis of conceptual metaphors. He contrasts two views: the primary metaphors are based on bodily experience, from which complex metaphors are constructed; every metaphor is built on metonymy. Basically, therefore, the author sheds light on the more nuanced relationship between the conceptual metaphor and metonymy in this chapter: “I […] suggest that many metaphors (of the correlational kind) derive from metonymies, that is, they have a metonymic basis. What distinguishes my position from the view of the other proponents in the group that favours a metonymy-based emergence for many metaphors is that I attempt to establish the relationship between metaphor and metonymy by relying on several particular characteristics of the conceptual system, as we know it today” (p. 35).</p> <p>In the fourth chapter (<em>Domains, Schemas, Frames, or Spaces?</em>), Kövecses analyses in detail the differences between the concepts listed in the title and their significance in the CMT. He admits that cognitive linguists also often have difficulty figuring out how to unequivocally identify which conceptual unit or structure is involved in conceptual metaphors. According to Kövecses, the solution lies in thinking of conceptual metaphors as the ones that simultaneously involve conceptual structures, or units, on several distinct levels of schematicity. He believes that four levels can be distinguished (“the level of image schemas, the level of domains, the level of frames, and the level of mental spaces (in addition to the linguistic level of the actual utterances in which the metaphors are instantiated”) (p. 51)), among which there is a hierarchical relationship. Each metaphor can be analysed at any level.</p> <p>In the fifth chapter (<em>Conceptual or Contextual?</em>), the author explains the role of language users’ local and global contexts in metaphorical conceptualization. The original standard CMT emerged primarily as a cognitive theory that ignored the contextual effect. As a result, linguists in many cases were unable to explain, or could explain only with difficulty the emergence of certain conceptual and linguistic metaphors. According to the contextualist version of conceptual metaphor theory, three important questions arise, which the author answers in the chapter: (1) What are the elements of (metaphorical) meaning making?; (2) What are the most common contextual factors that play a role in the use and creation of metaphors?; and (3) What is the cognitive mechanism through which contextual factors actually produce metaphors in natural discourse? (p. 94).</p> <p>The question in the next chapter (<em>Offline or Online?</em>) is that during metaphorical conceptualization, conceptual metaphors are created online in real discourse, that is, we are constantly creating them, or they are present in our conceptual system and retrieved in certain discourses. The “standard” CMT has been the subject of most criticism for not examining conceptual and linguistic metaphors in living language speech, but on the basis of the linguistic material of databases and dictionaries. Kövecses sees the solution to the problem in the multi-level hierarchical system outlined in Chapter 4. “In the «standard» view of CMT, researchers work on the levels of image schema, domain, and frame. These are conceptual structures that are decontextualized patterns in long-term memory that can account for metaphorical meaning in the most general ways., (while) […] online metaphorical activity necessarily makes use of the conceptual structure of mental spaces” (p. 117). The conceptual metaphor can thus be both online and offline: during metaphorical conceptualization, we operate offline metaphors retrieved from long-term memory online in the mental spaces of working memory. This view allows us to take into account the diversity of mental activities related to metaphors.</p> <p>After asking the questions discussed in the previous five chapters, in the next one (<em>The Shape of the Extended View of CMT</em>), Kövecses outlines the theory he has extended, naming its new elements. The extended theory is basically organized around two main questions: (1) Why does the speaker choose (not consciously) that particular metaphor in a given context? (2) How can the speaker create and the listener interpret the meaning expressed by the conceptual metaphor? In addition to elaborating on the two questions, the chapter also discusses the difference between embodied and discourse metaphor, the types of metaphorical meaning and metaphors, and then itemizes the characteristics of the new approach to the theory, feeding back to the responses given to the questions discussed in previous chapters.</p> <p>In the last chapter (<em>By Way of Conclusion: Responses to the Five Questions</em>), the author draws conclusions, evaluates the answers to the questions asked, and explains what overlaps can be detected between the extended CMT and different theories (blending, deliberate metaphor theory, structure-mapping theories, relevance theory). Finally, he compares the extended metaphor theory to the dynamic systems view of metaphor developed by Ray Gibbs (2017), according to which “metaphoric activity is a dynamic, self-organized process” and considers metaphor “as an emergent product of multiple constraints operating along different time scales” (p. 181). The similarity between the two theories is discussed in detail.</p> <p>In summary, the book offers new insight into the subject of conceptual metaphor, updating the previously grounded theory. It relates conceptual metaphor theory to current theories of cognitive linguistics and clarifies a number of issues that metaphor researchers have raised over the past few decades. Relying on traditional CMT, the chapters provide suggestions for an extended conceptual metaphor theory, including a discussion of whether literal meaning exists at all, whether conceptual metaphors are conceptual and / or contextual, and whether they work offline and online at the same time. Cognitive linguistics is a new and continuously evolving linguistic discipline whose research findings are constantly updated. This book was also intended to fulfil this goal, which does not only enrich the knowledge of researchers of metaphorical cognition but can also broaden the perspectives of those interested in literary studies.</p> Ilona Lechner, Oleksandr Kordonets Copyright (c) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/545 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000