East European Journal of Psycholinguistics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl <p><strong>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</strong> is an international&nbsp;<a href="http://eepl.at.ua/index/licensing/0-13">open access</a>&nbsp;peer-reviewed academic periodical published semiannually in June and December with both online and print versions.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for scholars to share, foster, and discuss globally various new topics and advances in different fields of modern psycholinguistics. The journal publishes original manuscripts covering but not limited to the following theoretical and applied fields of psycholinguistics, including neurolinguistics, cognitive psychology, psychology of language, translation studies.</p> Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University (VNU) en-US East European Journal of Psycholinguistics 2312-3265 Psycholinguistic Dimensions of Designing the Future by Adolescents and Youth https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/581 <p>In today's rapidly changing society, the ability of an individual to effectively design their future becomes highly important. It is the youth when a person acquires the ability to realize the project of their future. Constructing life goals and plans for their implementation by youth is carried out in the process of information exchange, life experience expansion and reflection of their semantic cognitions in social communications. The success depends on the characteristics of their image transformation into concepts, their statements' reflection, and their interpretation of other people's statements. The article aims to reveal the psycholinguistic features of designing the future by adolescents and youth. The method of the free association test, along with the method of assessing five-year intervals, was used for empirical research. 120 undergraduate and graduate students aged 17 to 21 from the National Pedagogical Drahomanov University, Ukraine, participated in the study held in 2021. Its results showed that most respondents created their goals mainly in marital, family, or professional modes. The objectives of spiritual growth and personal self-realization were autonomously constructed only by a few respondents. Participants with explicit nuclear semantic cognitions and corresponding associative fields, including altruistic associations, revealed prolonged, consistent, realistic structures of their life goals. In contrast, respondents with underdeveloped structures of semantic fields mostly created intermittent, time-limited structures of life goals with somewhat formal cognitions of satisfying their needs in the future.</p> Lubov Dolynska Olha Grinova Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.dol Teacher Educators’ Perceptions of Critical Incidents in Teaching Practice: The Case of Novice EFL Teachers https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/582 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Teachers experience various challenges and conditions in their profession, and they may require to make appropriate decisions and take action based on the analysis of the situation. The present study attempted to identify the critical incidents that occur in teaching practices for the novice teachers from the teacher educators’ standpoint. Moreover, they were asked to offer some solutions for these critical incidents. To do so, eight teacher educators at a teacher education university in Iran were asked to be involved in a semi-structured interview to openly express their views. Content and thematic analyses were carried out on the transcript of the interviews. Based on the findings, teacher educators referred to nine major incidents in the teachers’ pedagogical practices and offered six solutions. The major incidents included time management, the students’ ineffective cooperation, odd behavior, demotivation, dissatisfaction, lack of empathy and sympathy, the teacher’s content knowledge, and the required type of feedback. The solutions provided by the teacher educators were familiarizing the pre-service teachers with the critical incidents, management strategies, use of classroom observation, running workshops, reflective practice, and emotional intelligence development. The research results help novice and pre-service teachers to identify the critical incidents, reflect upon them, and be prepared to react appropriately. Moreover, the results confirm the necessity of a course, emphasizing both the critical incidents and the probable solutions.</p> Masoomeh Estaji Javad Ahmadi Fatalaki Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.est Relationship Between Age and Lexical Access https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/583 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Lexical access refers to the retrieval of the word considered to be appropriate from the lexicon. The related lexical items are assumed to be arranged in a specific pattern. When the related items are presented in succession, it may evoke facilitation or inhibition. When one lexical item facilitates the activation of other lexical items, the term facilitation is used. On the other hand, if one lexical item impedes the lexical activation of the other lexical items, the term inhibition is used. The study aimed to explore lexical-semantic activation patterns in younger and older adults. Continuous naming paradigm was employed to probe the lexical-semantic activation. 40 participants in the age range of 18-25 years; 40 individuals in the age range of 55-70 years served as participants after informed consent. The participants were divided into two groups based on age and they were asked to name pictures. A total of 120 pictures were used (60 related pictures and 60 unrelated pictures were used.). The stimulus was presented in 6 blocks. Each block had 10 semantically related pictures and 10 semantically unrelated pictures. The reaction time and accuracy of scores for related and unrelated pictures did not show statistically significant differences for younger individuals. A statistically significant difference between related and unrelated pictures was seen for older individuals, the reaction time was slower and accuracy was poorer for semantically related pictures. Greater reaction time and poor accuracy scores on semantically related pictures in this group suggested inhibition.</p> Saddam Issa Abdulah Alfarhan Fares Awadh Abhishek Aradhya Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.iss Exploring Concepts of the English-Language Tourism Advertising Discourse in Pre-Pandemic and Pandemic Times https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/585 <div><span lang="EN-US">After the Second World War, 2019 definitely became one of the most significant strength tests for humanity that gave a boost to gradual but crucial changes in every person’s mental worldview models, which are particular deeply established constructs of reality. There is no sphere of activity that has not been affected by the coronavirus pandemic (</span><span lang="EN-US">COVID</span><span lang="UK">-19</span><span lang="EN-US">). Tourism became one of those areas most severely affected by the crisis, caused by pandemic conditions and quarantine measures. Consequently, they had to adjust to the new reality of life in circumstances of numerous human rights and freedom restrictions. This fact stipulates the topicality of the given comparative research. </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Based on the anthropocentric approach, the authors suggest the research methodology that lies in a complex approach to the discourse analysis as a platform for interrelations between the cognitive worldviews of addresser and addressee. Having identified the concepts-autochthons of the modern English-language tourism advertising discourse and determined their regular correlations, the cognitive map of the modern English-language tourism advertising discourse was designed. Having applied the comparative analysis of the cognitive maps of the traditional and modern English-language tourism advertising discourse, the authors determined the main suppositions of the English-speaking consumer of tourism services during pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. Thus, the traditional view of the English-speaking consumer of tourism services is the perception of tourism as the phenomenon related to unhindered, comfortable traveling and family holidays with gastronomic delight, new acquaintances and positive emotions. However, during the pandemic period, for English-speaking tourism services, consumer tourism became necessary for a change of surroundings, like a sip of fresh air that is available only by following quarantine rules and only in those countries open for tourists. Safety and sanitizing become the most critical factors in choosing a tourist location.</span></div> Tetiana Kolisnichenko Iryna Osovska Liudmyla Tomniuk Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.kol Gender Features of Verbal Representation of the Concept "Gender Inequality" by University Students https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/587 <p>The article presents a study of the verbal representation of the concept of "gender inequality" in student youth. <span lang="EN-US">The research aims to determine and experimentally investigate the content of the "gender inequality" concept in the students' linguistic consciousness and to analyze its verbally expressed gender features. Verbal </span>representations were obtained based on the use of a controlled association test. The study involved 309 undergraduate and graduate students (199 women and 110 men) of various specialities, aged 17 to 25. According to the experiment results, 840 word-tokens were obtained, including 23 phrases; 160 associations presented single reactions. Gender analysis showed that women provided 539 responses, including 530 verbal (176 original) reactions and nine rejections; men provided 319 reactions: 310 verbal reactions (103 original) and nine rejections. Gender characteristics were determined based on calculating associates' brightness index and forming the core of the associative field. Among the most frequent were woman (.28), men (.24), and feminism (.12). Cognitive interpretation of the data showed that for women, the concept of "gender inequality" has a more negative emotional connotation than for men. For a significant number of women, gender inequality includes experiences that are associated with sexism (.08), discrimination (.07), and violence (.07). Analysis of male associations has shown that the concept of "gender inequality" in men has a less emotional response and is presented at a more abstract (theoretical) level.</p> Tetiana Kostina Diana Drozdova Iryna Bulakh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.kos Common Errors in English Aphasic Discourse https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/588 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The article generalizes the results of research directed onto singling out the common errors in speech of aphasic patients. Aphasia is characterized by partial or complete loss of speech and is caused by damage in the language areas (Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas). A lesion in the middle part of the patient’s left frontal lobe results in Broca’s aphasia and the damage to the left posterior superior temporal gyrus is referred to as Wernicke’s aphasia. The major causes of aphasia are strokes, cortical vein thrombosis, traumas of skull and brain, brain infections, tumors, etc. The research is based on the language-in-use descriptive approach to discourse analysis and presents an investigation of 40 documentary video recordings of aphasic patients’ speech (free narration and dialogues); the overall duration of the recordings is 180 minutes. The inclusion criterion was aphasia of any type in adulthood. All the patients are English-speaking people (English being their native language) recovering from aphasia. The analysis was done according to the following criteria: intelligibility, coherence, cohesion, grammatical structure of utterances, prosody and intonation, thus combining formalist (or structuralist) and functionalist research paradigms. The research has shown that the most common errors that aphasic patients make when speaking are as follows: syntactic errors, articulatory errors, lexical misuse and slow speech rate. Syntactic and articulatory errors prevail (55% and 50% of all the studied cases respectively), whereas 37.5% of the speakers demonstrated slow speech rate. The speech of 75% of people with aphasia is incoherent. The patients’ verbal performance is marked with extensive use of pronouns and repetition of words and phrases.</p> Olena Kotys Tetiana Bondar Viktoria Servatovych Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.kot Rural Bilingual Roma Children and Theory of Mind Competencies https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/590 <p>Two age groups of Roma children (3;6-4;6 years old n = 20 and 4;7- 5;6 n = 20) from rural areas of Bulgaria were tested for understanding the classical Theory of Mind (TOM) task (False-belief) and the correlations with two language tests (<em>Evidentiality</em> and <em>Yes/No Questions</em>) were investigated. Coordinate with that the children were tested by means of the nonverbal Knox Cub Intelligent Test. The Theory of Mind tests and the language tests were conducted in both languages – L1 Romani and Bulgarian as their second language. The children attend kindergarten where they learn Bulgarian, but at home, they speak Romani as L1. All children were tested individually in a separate room by the researcher. A Roma woman member of the community and speaker of the dialect of the children tested them in Romani. All the results were analysed using ANOVA. The results frоm the study show that in the performance of both TOM tasks, the older children understand better the tasks and a high number of them have correct answers. The children performed equally well on the tests in both languages. The differences between Romani as L1 and Bulgarian as a second language are not significant. In the performance of the language tasks <em>Evidentiality</em> and <em>Yes/No Questions</em> there is a statistically significant correlation (p &lt; .05000). There is also a correlation between L1 Romani and Bulgarian in performing the language tasks (p &lt; .340526). However, there is no correlation between the language tasks and the TOM tasks. There are correlations between the variables <em>Evidentiality </em>Task Scores and <em>Yes</em><em>/</em><em>No </em><em>Question</em> Task Scores (.4064); also between <em>Evidentiality</em> Task Scores and <em>Knox’</em><em>s </em><em>Cube</em> <em>Nonverbal </em><em>Intelligent </em><em>Test</em> Scores (.3969); and between the <em>Yes</em><em>/</em><em>No </em><em>Question</em> Task Scores and <em>Knox’</em><em>s </em><em>Cube</em> <em>Nonverbal </em><em>Intelligent </em><em>Test </em>Scores (.5073). All correlations are only for the Romani language. The conclusion from the study is that the bilingual Roma children develop the Theory of Mind competencies around the age of 4;6 years old. Their language proficiency level in Romani and Bulgarian is basically equal, however when performing intelligence task the children are much better in their mother tongue. The children understand the Theory of Mind task in both languages in equal measure.</p> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.kyu The Role of Proficiency in Kashmiri Language in Phonological Processing Skills: A Cognitive-linguistic Approach https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/591 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Language reflects the general aspects of human cognition and it works in terms of generalities, i.e. in terms of categories (Cruse, 2000). So, any of the linguistic expressions, whether it’s a phone, word, syllable or a sentence ends up in the representation of a category referring to a something that is usually aimed at sufficing the need for communication. These categories are conceptual or can be referred to as the abstract mental constructs. However, language is not an autonomous cognitive faculty which implies that language is not exactly an innate cognitive module and is not separated from non-linguistic cognitive abilities (Craft &amp; Cruse, 2004). This study reports on the role of proficiency of Kashmiri language in phonological processing of illiterate native Kashmiri speakers. A total number 40 participants (20 Literate; 20 Illiterate), divided into two groups; were tested for Lexical Decision, Random Automatized Naming, Initial Phoneme Deletion, and Final Phoneme Deletion. The results suggested that the performance of both the groups was affected by Literacy and Proficiency in their native language i.e. Kashmiri. The effect of literacy on phonological processing was in consistence with the available literature however, the performance by illiterates was not worked out. This study attempted to find out the reasons for the performance of illiterates, and it was found that the illiterates can perform almost similar to those of literates on phonological awareness tasks because the proficiency in their native language enhances their phonemic and phonological awareness skills. Hence, the proficiency in Kashmir language has a role in phonological processing of illiterates.</p> Farooq Ahmad Mir Azizuddin Khan Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.ahm Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Expressed Emotion Measure https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/592 <p>Large gaps of data still exist within the Ukrainian context utilizing Expresses Emotion as a warm, hostile, critical or emotional over-involving behaviour towards individual with a mental or physical condition. The aim of the current article was to suggest translation and cross-cultural adaptation of level of expressed emotion (LEE) as it is perceived by service users. This study applies the LEE which includes four factors: perceived lack of emotional support (pLES: 19 items), perceived intrusiveness (pIN: seven items), perceived irritation (pIR: seven items), and perceived criticism (pC: five items). All items are rated according to frequency and intensity on a four-point Likert scale 1 to 4 (1: untrue; 2: somewhat untrue; 3: somewhat true; 4: true). The total score of the 38 items is entitled perceived expressed emotion (pEE). LEE has strong psychometric properties in adolescents and adults. The translation LEE followed WHO guidelines (2020) and comprises some stages, namely a forward translation from English to Ukrainian, a back translation, expert panel validation, pretesting and cognitive face-to-face interviews with 10 clinical psychologists. The Ukrainian translation version of LEE meets requirements of LEE original version. However, some items were transformed according to semantic, grammatical or stylistic norms of the Ukrainian language. The Ukrainian version of LEE is the first psychometric tool to assess expressed emotion in a Ukrainian healthcare setting.</p> Tetiana Pastryk Mykhailo Kots Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.pas A Socio-Pragmatic Study of Gender Differences in the Use of “Walak’ (Woe) and Its Variants in Spoken Jordanian Arabic https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/593 <div><span lang="EN-US">Using a mixed-method approach, this study examines the pragmatic functions of the discourse marker <em>walak</em> and its variants in Spoken Jordanian Arabic. It also explores the differences in the use of this discourse marker according to the speakers’ gender. The data was collected from a sample of 200 native speakers of Jordanian Arabic, using informal interviews and a validation questionnaire. The results showed that <em>walak</em> and its variants perform six language functions: warning, insulting, addressing/vocative, endearment, threatening, and denial. As far as gender differences are concerned, the findings indicated that there were statistically significant differences between males and females in the use of <em>walak </em>and its variants in favour of males. This indicates that males agreed more with the sentences expressing each pragmatic function in the validation questionnaire. The study concludes with some pedagogical implications for learners of Arabic as a second language, teachers and syllabus designers.</span></div> Ghaleb Rabab’ah Noor Al-Yasin Sane Yagi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.rab Theoretical and Methodological Principles of Teaching Professional English to Future Doctors https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/595 <div><span lang="UK">Modern social processes determine new vital areas of reconstruction of the educational process in higher medical school on the way to t</span><span lang="EN-US">each</span><span lang="UK">ing future professionals in all fields of medicine. The objective reality of Ukraine’s development today is the expansion of international ties and integration into the European community. Medical professionals' knowledge of foreign languages ​​is becoming essential in such circumstances</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">. The article aims</span><span lang="EN-US"> to develop and </span><span lang="UK">scientifically substantiat</span><span lang="EN-US">e </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">methodological concepts and theoretical base</span><span lang="EN-US">s </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">of the English </span><span lang="EN-US">language </span><span lang="UK">professional </span><span lang="EN-US">teaching </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">of future doctors in higher </span><span lang="EN-US">medical schools, characterize t</span><span lang="UK">he levels of English professional </span><span lang="EN-US">knowledge of medical students, analyze the findings and imply them to future research and practice. T</span><span lang="UK">he pedagogical conditions of English-language professional teaching of future doctors </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">such as </span><span lang="UK">motivational stability and awareness of the need to learn English for further professional communication; integration of professional and linguistic (English-speaking) disciplines in the educational process of </span><span lang="EN-US">the higher medical school; </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">creation of </span><span lang="EN-US">the </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">developmental English-s</span><span lang="EN-US">peaking </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">professional environment in medical higher schools</span><span lang="UK">; involvement of future doctors in active English-speaking professionally-oriented activities </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">were </span><span lang="UK">define</span><span lang="EN-US">d </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">and substantiate</span><span lang="EN-US">d</span><span lang="UK">. </span><span lang="UK">The authors designed and verified the model of English-language professional teaching </span><span lang="EN-US">to </span><span lang="UK">future doctors in </span><span lang="EN-US">higher </span><span lang="UK">medical </span><span lang="EN-US">schools</span><span lang="UK">. Besides, they</span><span lang="EN-US"> experimentally established and statistically confirmed the positive dynamics of the levels of English-language professional teaching to students in the experimental group. This was achieved due to the introduction of the designed methodology to future doctors who study at higher medical schools. The application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov λ-test confirms the validity of the proposed model and experimental technique.</span></div> Liudmyla Rusalkina Agnessa Tomashevska Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.rus Linguistic and Psychometric Validation of the Ukrainian Translation of the Inventory of Personality Organization-Revised (IPO-R-UKR) https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/596 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The cultural adaptation of the psychodiagnostic questionnaire involves the implementation of a “double-blind” translation with subsequent linguistic validation considering both linguistic differences and the symbolism of the authors’ statements. Then, based on the survey data of respondents, various psychometric indicators of the questionnaire are checked. The development of Ukrainian-language questionnaires in the psychodynamic paradigm is crucial for creating an appropriate scientific evidence base of therapeutic methods and for psychotherapeutic practice to equip specialists with reliable diagnostic tools. The research objective is to carry out a professional translation of The Inventory of Personality Organization-Revised (IPO-R) into Ukrainian, followed by checking for linguistic validity and psychometric properties. The questionnaire showed high psychometric performance in the long (IPO; Lenzenweger et al., 2001) and short (IPO-R; Smits et al., 2009) versions and foreign language adaptations. It is widely used in psychological research, the theoretical and methodological basis of which is the psychoanalytic concept, in particular, the theory of Kernberg (1986) on different levels of structural organization of personality, which underlies the psychoanalyst's choice of a strategy for working with a client. The created test version of the IPO-R-UKR questionnaire passed the stages of two-sided "double-blind" translation and was agreed upon by a team of philologists and psychologists. Based on the results of 1152 people participating in the empirical research, we have proven IPO-R-UKR to have a similar to the original two-factor structure, good internal consistency of the scales, construct convergent, and criterion validity. Thus, IPO-R-UKR can be used in practical psychological activities and scientific research to identify criteria for the structural organization of personality, such as reality testing, identity diffusion, and mechanisms of psychological defenses, as well as for screening diagnostics of the structural level of personality organization by Kernberg (1986). </p> Iryna Semkiv Khrystyna Turetska Iryna Kryvenko Roman Kechur Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.sem Reframing English Studies in India: Socio-Psycholinguistic Issues https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/597 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The paper deals with the theory and praxis of decolonising English Studies in India. The paper suggests appropriate measures to pull out English studies from the Macaulayan paradigm and to recast the priorities in English Studies in the light of changing role for emerging India in the unipolar world realities, rising aspirations of the middle classes, democratic and egalitarian needs. The project of ‘decolonising’ education at the macro-level and English Studies at the micro-level has been discussed with reference to curriculum, teaching methods, materials, evaluation, research and publication and medium of instruction in all possible details in the paper. The paper attempts to deal with contemporary realities like various treaties and market economy and issues like making a distinction between real knowledge and colonial knowledge along with historical context of English Studies. Several measures have been suggested to make English Studies in India relevant to the contemporary times, to save them from being derivative and to reshape Euro-American knowledge about English culture, Literature and Language from Indian perspective. Practical suggestions to decolonise curriculum have been made keeping in view the distinction between teaching literature and language in the first and the second language situations.</p> </div> </div> </div> Susheel Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.kum Modest Grief in the Office of the Dead: A Case Study of Emotion Terms in Translations of the Orthodox Funeral Vigil https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/598 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to consider the specific features of rendering ancient emotion terms and words connected with emotions into contemporary languages. The specific texts under study are the Great Litany and the prayer “God of all spirits and of all flesh” from the Byzantine Office for the Dead (its part is the Funeral Vigil): the Church Slavonic and Greek texts serve as the originals, and the translations are into Ukrainian, Polish and English. In religious contexts, ancient emotion terms usually contain psychic reactions and Christian associations which may have disappeared in modern usage. Besides, the emotions used in the funerary texts are never pathetic, but the positive and negative emotions are perfectly balanced. Special attention goes to the emotion of anger which acts as an ethical concept and serves as a synonym for divine punishment in mediaeval Slavonic cultures. The search for equivalents of emotion terms should go within two lines of reception: that of biblical lexis and that of patristic interpretation. Although the change of the meanings from physical rest to spiritual rest, death and other deathly associations is heavily dependent on the fundamentals of Christian theology, the exploration of the conceptual matrices of emotion terms discloses that even such universal emotions as fear and joy contain some space for the national interpretation of believers’ psychic states and the very Divinity. Moreover, translators have to remember that the conceptual matrix of emotion terms altered drastically after the Enlightenment, and the search for successful equivalents makes them insightful and creative. </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Acknowledgements</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This publication is part of the project which was made possible through Scholarship Grant No. 52110864 from the International Visegrad Fund. The project is implemented at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (Lublin, Poland) under the supervision of Dr Habil. Magdalena Mitura.</p> Taras Shmiher Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.shm A Category With Multiple Centers: The Case of the Ukrainian Verbal Prefix Za- https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/599 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The present study aims to reconstruct the structure of the Ukrainian verbal prefix <em>za-</em> as a category. Cognitive modeling and the network approach are used to this end, similarly to other works within the Cognitive Linguistics paradigm (Janda 1985, 1986), (Sokolova &amp; Endresen, 2017), (Tabakowska, 2003). The modeling phase is preceded by an analysis of a large sample of Ukrainian <em>za- </em>verbs, which are grouped into semantic blocks based on shared semantic content. These blocks are then mapped onto a network of conceptual schemas, which includes such prominent centers as CURVE and APPEAR. The latter and several other nodes are shown to be modifications of CURVE with the links between them constituting family resemblances (Wittgenstein, 2009). The conceptual schema APPEAR is actively used by native speakers to coin new inchoative <em>za- </em>verbs in Ukrainian and several Slavic languages, which means that conscious (Type 2) categorization (Starko, 2014) is employed. This and other considerations suggest that APPEAR is a psychologically real conceptual entity in its own right. Thus, an argument is made in favor of a bifocal, rather than unicentric, topology of the <em>za- </em>network, which is contrary to the popular assumption about the existence of a single central element (prototype) from which all other network nodes are derived in what is called “radial structure” or “radical category” (Lakoff, 1987). The a priori assumption in the study of categories should be that they may be unicentric or pluricentric.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"> </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Acknowledgements</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This research was supported by a grant from the Humanities Faculty of the Ukrainian Catholic University (Lviv, Ukraine).</p> Vasyl Starko Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.sta A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Inter-Ethnic Views of Ethics https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/600 <p>In this paper we describe a collaborative, cross-cultural project whose focus is on developing an interactive pedagogy for undergraduate students that delivers a culturally relevant ethical activity, using an internet platform to widen the scope of learning at an international level. The ongoing collaborative project described here is implemented through a website, the Ethical Engineer (https://ethicalengineer.ttu.edu), that provides an open and unique online digital platform for developing a community of students committed to the discussion of ethics from a global perspective. A goal of this project was to gain insights into similarities and differences between Indian, Ukrainian, and USA respondents in their reasoning about a hypothetical ethical dilemma. Two complementary methods of analysis were applied to students’ responses. First, a well-known method for text analysis, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC2022) was used to identify topics and perspectives in students’ essays that distinguished the three groups. These analyses were followed by naïve Bayesian analyses that were used to further identify characteristic conceptual differences between the three ethnic groups. We discuss how the Ethical Engineer platform could be further developed by providing students with immediate substantive feedback to their written responses, in order to extend the learning benefits to students from participation on the website. The analytic methods described here demonstrate ways to gain knowledge of globally-diverse students’ thinking.</p> Roman Taraban Sweta Saraff Serhii Zasiekin Ramakrishna Biswal Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.tar Taras Shevchenko’s Neologism Снігоквіт (Snihokvit): Psycholinguistic, Lexico-Semantic and Cultural Aspects https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/601 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The article focuses on the study of Taras Shevchenko’s linguistic identity through the free word association test results. The psycholinguistic experiment, “Author Neologisms of Taras Shevchenko,” held in 2019, involved four hundred forty-eight participants aged 14 to 61 y.o. Among them were professors, undergraduate and graduate students from Rivne State Humanitarian University, Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Sarny Pedagogical College, National University of “Ostroh Academy”, Rivne Economic Technological College, National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University, and M. Ocheret Zhytomyr City Humanitarian Gymnasium #23 (Ukraine). The responses of the recipients to the stimulus word снігоквіт/snihokvit (“snow blossom”), Shevchenko’s neologism, have been characterized based on grammatical (paradigmatic, syntagmatic, word-building), meaningful (thematic, reminiscent, reactions-personalities), and formal connections. The following semantic spheres to which the verbal responses belong have been defined: “Names of Flora”, “Natural Phenomena”, “Names of Actions”, “Colour Features”, “Haptic Features”, “Temporal Features”, “Abstract Notions”, as well as types of responses within the boundaries of associative fields. The specificity of a modern Ukrainian speaker’s perception of the meaning of a neologism taken out of the literary context has also been discovered. The authors have come to the conclusion that the poet created a highly artistic lexical neologism with the help of which he tried to communicate to the reader not only the primary meaning of the word лілея/lileya “white lily” (a flower) but also to provoke aesthetic feelings, and actualize the imagination about this special flower that is empowered with magic properties in the national linguistic map of the world. All the responses of the considered semantic spheres that belong to the associative fields of the author’s neologism снігоквіт/snihokvit give a better understanding of the lexicon of modern Ukrainian, the psycholinguistic peculiarities of the perception of Shevchenko’s figurative word. They also make it possible to trace specific changes in the conceptual map of the world and its perception. </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Acknowledgements</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The research was conducted within the complex scientific project, "Ukrainian Neology: Author Individual and Linguo-cultural Parameters" (state registration number 0117U005247), carried out by the Ukrainian Language Department at Rivne State Humanitarian University, Ukraine.</p> Halyna Vokalchuk Nina Danylyuk Kateryna Lytvyn Lesya Malevych Oksana Rohach Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.vok A Concept Analysis of Moral Injury in Ukrainian National Guard Service Members’ Narratives: A Clinical Case Study https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/603 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Moral injury is a relatively new construct which is strongly associated with PTSD but which also has distinctive features that may not overlap with PTSD. There is a growing body of literature that recognises moral injury as emotional distress and sufferings arising from a transgression of one’s core moral principles or ethical beliefs and aligned with feelings of shame and guilt. A great number of moral injury research is represented by theoretical and qualitative studies vs biopsychosocial approach towards conceptualizing PTSD. However, a systematic understanding of how potentially moral injurious events contribute to moral injury symptoms is still lacking. Of particular concern is moral injury of military personnel exhibiting PTSD symptoms during and after wartime. This study utilizes the concept analysis model (Walker &amp; Avant, 2011) to explore and assess the attributes, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of moral injury in Ukrainian National Guard service members, who are protecting the northern Ukrainian border with Belarus and defending military objects during the 2022 full-scale invasion of Ukraine by Russian troops. The research uses narrative case studies collected from National Guard soldiers in Ukraine as part of our combatants' moral injury broader project. Initial results of this study indicate mechanisms of developing moral injury symptoms with comorbidity of depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD in National Guard service members during wartime. The findings of the current study have important theoretical and practical implications in terms of better understanding the causal relations of moral injury and enhancing clinical practice and holistic treatment approach for National Guard soldiers. </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Acknowledgements</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine within the project “Moral Injury and Healing of Combatants: Neuropsychological Correlates and Psychological Interventions” (2022-2023), 0122U000945. We would also like to acknowledge and thank the Ukrainian National Guard participants for their time and willingness to share their experiences with the research team.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Larysa Zasiekina Oleg Kokun Mariia Kozihora Tetiana Fedotova Olena Zhuravlova Martha Bojko Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.zas ESL Students’ Perceptions of Error Correction Techniques in Oral Production: A Level-Based Approach https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/604 <div><span lang="EN-US">The article<strong> </strong>reveals the findings from a survey examining students’ perceptions of corrective feedback involving six groups of the first- through fifth-year ESL students enrolled in Bachelor’s and Master’s programs in English Language and Literature, Applied Linguistics, International Law, and International Communication and Global Media. The study attempts to reveal students’ perceptions of corrective feedback, as well as its perceived effectiveness and psychological relevance, which are analyzed on the basis of students’ answers. The aim of this survey-based research was to explore ESL students’ preferences for </span><span lang="EN-US">the amount and type of corrective feedback in speaking/reading </span><span lang="EN-US">and develop a method to help educators effectively choose the types of corrective feedback on the basis of their students’ level of English. In order to reinforce the study with substantial theoretical evidence, each type of corrective feedback was characterized on the basis of a rigorous review of related evidence-focused literature. The survey, which was administered to 78 ESL students at </span><span lang="EN-US">Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and Khmelnytskyi National University, Ukraine, demonstrated a number of discrepancies in students’ preferences and attitudes. Their responses constituted grounds for assessing and ranking the prevalent verbal correction techniques in ESL teaching according to their perceived relevance. The implications of the current study could be taken into consideration by ESL teachers for determining an optimal set of error correction techniques in their own classrooms on the basis of their students’ level of English.</span></div> Maryna Zembyska Yulia Romanova Nataliia Chumak Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.zem Psycholinguistic and Cultural Implications of German Stimulus Words Humor and Lachen in Association Test https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/605 <p class="Default">The article is focused on the psycholinguistic and cultural study of individual associative responses to German stimulus words 'Humor' and 'Lachen'. The goal is to determine individual cognitive activity features in the target 'culture of popular laughter' (Bakhtin, 1965). The research involved a free word association test aimed to examine the German learners' perception of the stimulus words. Sixty undergraduate students aged 20-22 of the educational programme "Language and Literature (German). Translation" at Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Ukraine, participated in the word association test. Quantitative analysis of response words, typical and individual responses allowed building semantic gestalt and productive semantic zones that represent the linguistic culture identification features. Nouns, adjectives, and verbs represented productive associations. The analysis of associative fields allowed modelling the interaction of psycholinguistic and lingo-cultural factors for the emergence of responses to the stimulus words 'Lachen' and 'Humor'. The obtained response words determined communicative, pragmatic, and cognitive productive profiles. Nuclear zones in each associative field tended towards a unified expression of positive emotions. Respondents produced a wide range of semantic potential of stimulus words and frequency of reverse reactions. The expressive spectrum of productivity of individual associations by the respondents is interpretive and results from their cognition of the culture of popular laughter.</p> Oksana Zubach Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 9 1 10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.1.zub