Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Growth in Dialectical Perspective: Implications for Practice
This article provides the conceptualization of the post-traumatic development (PTD) in terms of a dialectical unity of the processes of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic growth (PTG); practical implications for eco-centered facilitation of post-traumatic growth and development. The results of the research indicate that the process of personality development is paradoxical, irreversible and scarcely predictable. In dialectical perspective the attractor of change is not about the content of transient forms (such as trauma, success, flow) but the stabilization of their change: thesis – antithesis – synthesis. As compared to PTG, PTD’s outcome is the systemic transition to the novel (not better or positive) identity. PTSD as well as PTG constitute minor cycles within the major cycle of PTD. The core metaphor of change as personality development is the work of the immunity system (SPI) which has an ambivalent nature: on the one hand, it defends the personality from the influence of adversarial agents and on the other – proactively guards it from stagnation and lack of confrontation and discontinuity. Principals of PTD facilitation: (a) the situation of psychological help (PH) is a case of a transition to a social level of personality self-regulation; (b) an inquiry for PH contains a narrative with necessary and sufficient elements for post-traumatic growth and development; (c) these elements are objectified in paradoxes, contradictions, incongruences as the source of personality development; (d) the task of PTD facilitator is to support the explication of internal change programs by maintaining the position of ambiguity tolerance and sensitivity to accidental flow of events.
Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Croog, S., & Levine, S. (1987). Causal attribution, perceived benefits, and morbidity after a heart attack: An 8-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.1.29
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). The History and Status of General Systems Theory. The Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 407–426. http://www.jstor.org/stable/255139
Brown, L., Belli, G., Asnaani, A., & Foa, E. (2019). A review of the role of negative cognitions about oneself, others, and the world in the treatment of PTSD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43(1), 143–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-018-9938-1
Busch, В., & McNamara, Т. (2020). Language and Trauma: An Introduction. Applied Linguistics, 41(3), 323–333, https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amaa002
Christopher, M. (2004). A broader view of trauma: A biopsychosocial-evolutionary view of the role of the traumatic stress response in the emergence of pathology and/or growth. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(1), 75–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2003.12.003
Cohena, A., & Baib, H. (2019). Eastern wisdom, inner work, and aging: a contribution in second wave positive psychology. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 32(3 4), 472–487. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2019.1624253
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2012). FLOW: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper & Row.
Cukanov, B. (2000). Vremja v psihike cheloveka [Time in the human psyche]. Odessa: Astroprint.
Davis, R., & Millon, T. (1994). Personality change: Metatheories and alternatives. In: T. Heatherton & J. L. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change? (p. 85–119). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10143-005
Ertan, D., Hingray, C., Burlacu, E., Sterlé, A., & El-Hage, W. (2021). Post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth. BMC Psychiatry, 21, 155. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03158-6
Gardner, L. (2016). Metamodernism: A New Philosophical Approach to Counseling. Journal of Humanistic counseling counseling, 55(2), 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1002/johc.12026
Hegel, G. (1812/1969). Science of Logic. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (2004) Posttraumatic Growth: Three Explanatory Models. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 30–34. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20447198
Joseph, S. (2011). What Doesn’t Kill Us: The New Psychology of Posttraumatic Growth. Basic Books.
Joseph, S., & Linley, P. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 11–21.
Kleim, B., Horn, A., Kraehenmann, R., Mehl, M., & Ehlers, A. (2018). Early Linguistic Markers of Trauma-Specific Processing Predict Post-trauma Adjustment. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 645. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00645
Kostyuk, G. (1989). Navchal'no-vyhovnyj proces i psyhichnyj rozvytok osobystosti [Learning Process and Mental Development of a Personality]. L. Prokolijenko, Ed. Kyiv: Radianska Shkola.
Lomas, T., & Ivtzan, I. (2016). Second Wave Positive Psychology: Exploring the Positive–Negative Dialectics of Wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 1753–1768. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9668-y
Long, L., Phillips, C., Glover, N., Richardson, A., D’Souza, J., Cunningham‑Erdogdu, P., & Gallagher, M. (2021). A Meta‑analytic Review of the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth, Anxiety, and Depression. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00370-9
Luno, J., Louwerse, M., & Beck, J. (2013). Tell us your story: Investigating the linguistic features of trauma narrative. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci). The Cognitive Science Society. (2955-2960).
Lushin, P. (2017). Haos i neopredelennost': ot stradanija – k rostu i razvitiju [Chaos and ambiguity: from suffering to growth]. Kiev. (Serija «Zhivaja kniga»; T. 4).
Lushyn, P. (2020). At the forefront of the buffer: the convergence of traditional and positive psychology Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy, 14, 28–34. https://doi.org/10.26565/2410-1249-2020-14-0
Lushyn, P., Sukhenko Ya., & Davydova, O. (2020). Particularities of Students’ Educational Trajectories and “Projectories”: A Psychosemantic Dimension. In 2020 IEEE Problems of Automated Electrodrive. Theory and Practice (PAEP). Kremenchuk, Ukraine: IEEE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PAEP49887.2020.9240866
Mansfield, C., McLean, K., & Lilgendahl, J. (2010). Narrating traumas and transgressions: Links between narrative processing, wisdom, and well-being. Narrative Inquiry, 20(2), 246–273. https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.20.2.02man
Mendaglio, S. (Ed.). (2008). Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration. Great Potential Press, Inc.
Overton, W. (1994). The Arrow of Time and the Cycle of Time: Concepts of Change, Cognition, and Embodiment. Psychological Inquiry, 5(3), 215–237. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0503_9
Pereira, L., Sampson, J., & DiCola, K. (2019). Factors Related to Linguistic Content in Video Narrative of Adolescents with Cancer and Healthy Controls. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 48, 1185–1201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-019-09652-z
Rowen, J. (1992). The Concept of breakthrough. In Breakthrough and Integration in Psychotherapy. (pp. 81 83). London: Whurr Publishers LTD.
Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.
Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Lurie-Beck, J. (2014). A meta-analytic clarification of the relationship between posttraumatic growth and symptoms of posttraumatic distress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(2), 223–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.10.005
Shapiro, F. (1995.) Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: basic principles, protocols, and procedures. New York: The Guilford Press.
Stein, Dan J. et al. (2020). Perceived helpfulness of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys. Depression and Anxiety, 37(10), 972–974. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23076
Tedeschi, R., & Moore, B. (2020). Posttraumatic Growth as an Integrative Therapeutic Philosophy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/int0000250
Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1501_0
Tsukanov, B. (1989). Time Factor and the Problem of Cardiovascular Diseases. The Soviet Journal of Psychology, 1, 53–59.
Wieland-Burston, J. (2015). Chaos and Order in the World of the Psyche. London: Routledge.
Wong, P. & McDonald, M. (2002). Tragic optimism and personal meaning in counselling victims of abuse. Pastoral Sciences, 20(2), 231–249.
Wong, P. (2011). Reclaiming Positive Psychology: A Meaning-Centered Approach to Sustainable Growth and Radical Empiricism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(4) 408–412. https://doi.org/10.1177/00221678114087299
Wong, P., (2019). Second wave positive psychology’s (PP2.0) contribution to counselling psychology. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 32(3-4), 275–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2019.1671320.