Psycholinguistic approach to the analysis of manipulative and indirect hate speech in media

Authors

  • Yuliya Krylova-Grek University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.2.kry

Keywords:

media text, psycholinguistic analysis, Ukraine, war, hate speech

Abstract

The present study takes a psycholinguistic approach to the analysis of Russian media texts published between 1 December 2020 to 31 May 2021. I aimed to provide a scientific basis for the existence of manipulative and indirect hate speech using an interdisciplinary methodology comprising linguistic, psycholinguistic, and other analytical methods such as fact-checking and logical analysis. This facilitated the identification of techniques employed by the authors of the respective texts. In the article, I describe how I use the methodology to analyse media texts. I discovered that three basic types of hate speech were used to influence the audience’s consciousness: (1) direct hate speech; (2) indirect (hidden) hate speech; and (3) manipulative hate speech. The first and second types were the most common. This may be explained by the fact that direct hate speech is condemned by international organisations and its use may be a reason for lawsuits against media outlets and their further penalisation. Texts with evidence of the second and third types of hate speech aimed to create a negative attitude toward a particular nationality, race, citizen, and so on. I consider such behaviour to be an early manifestation of widespread discrimination and other forms of intolerance, including possible violence and genocide. The present study was carried out in collaboration with a Crimean human rights group. The author was invited to participate as an expert in the field of psycholinguistic textual analysis. The research was prepared and completed at the beginning of February 2022, on the eve of the invasion of Ukraine. We have gathered evidence of indirect and manipulative hate speech that dehumanised, demonised, and marginalised Ukrainian citizens. This has led to violence against the civilian population and high numbers of casualties. The aforementioned methodology will continue to be used in the analysis of current media content.

Author Biography

Yuliya Krylova-Grek, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

References

Кукушкина О. В. (2016). Методы анализа, применяемые в судебной лингвистической экспертизе. Теория и практика судебной экспертизы, 1(41), 118-126. https://doi.org/10.30764/64/1819-2785-2016-1-118-126

Мачикова М. (2015). Медіа в контексті психолінгвістики та медіапсихології. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 2(2), 118–126. URL: https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/154

Седова, И. & Печончик, Т. (2018). Язык вражды в информационном пространстве Крыма: Информационно-аналитический доклад о распространении языка вражды на территории Крымского полуострова (Март 2014-Июль 2017), Киев.

Сєдова І, Крилова-Грек Ю. (2022). Мова ворожнечі в онлайн-медіа, які висвітлюють події у Криму: Інформаційно-аналітична доповідь про поширення мови ворожнечі в російськомовних онлайн медіа, які регулярно висвітлюють збройний конфлікт України та РФ і пов’язані з ним події у Криму (грудень 2020–травень 2021), Київ.

Сентенберг, И. В. & Карасик, В. И. (1993). Псевдоаргументация: некоторые виды речевых манипуляций. Речевое общение и аргуменация, 1, 30-38.

DellaVigna, S., Enikolopov, R., Mironova, V., Petrova, M., & Zhuravskaya, E. (2014). Cross-Border Media and Nationalism: Evidence from Serbian Radio in Croatia. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(3), 103–132. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.6.3.103

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. Routledge

Leets, L. (2002). Experiencing hate speech: Perceptions and responses to anti-Semitism and antigay speech. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 341–361.

Matsuda, M. J., Lawrence, C. R., Delgado, R., Williams Crenshaw, K. (1993). Words That Wound. Westview.

Outing, S. (2004). Eyetrack III: What News Websites Look Like Through Readers’ Eyes. The Poynter Institute. https://www.poynter.org/archive/2004/eyetrack-iii-what-news-websites-look-like-through-readers-eyes

Paz, M. A., Montero-Díaz, J., & Moreno-Delgado, A. (2020). Hate Speech: A Systematized Review. SAGE, https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020973022

Salminen, J., Veronesi, F., Almerekhi, H., Jun, S., & Jansen, BJ. (2018). Online Hate Interpretation Varies by Country, But More by Individual: A Statistical Analysis Using Crowdsourced Ratings. Fifth International Conference on Social Networks Analysis, Management and Security (SNAMS), 88–94, https://doi.org/10.1109/SNAMS.2018.8554954

Schneider, K. (2000). The emergence and development of headlines in English newspapers. In F. Ungerer, (Ed.). English Media Texts – Past and Present: Language and textual structure. (pp. 45-66). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.80

Sellars, A. F. (2016). Defining Hate Speech. Berkman Klein Center Research Publication, (pp. 16-48). Boston University School of Law, Public Law Research, Boston University School of Law. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2882244

Selth, A. (2004) Burma's Muslims and the War on Terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27(2), 107-126, https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100490275094

Tontodimamma, A., Nissi, E., Sarra, A., & Fontanella, L. (2021). Thirty years of research into hate speech: Topics of interest and their evolution. Scientometrics, 126(1), 157–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03737-6

Ungerer, F. (2000). English Media Texts – Past and Present: Language and Textual Structure. John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.80

Waldron, J. (2012). The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

Whillock, R. K., Slayden, D. (Eds.). (1995). Hate Speech. Sage.

References (translated and transliterated)

Kukushkina, O.V. (2016). Metody analiza, primenyaemye v sudebnoj lingvisticheskoj ekspertize [The methods of analysis used in forensic linguistic expertise]. Teoriya i Praktika Sudebnoy Ekspertizy, 1(41), 118-126. https://doi.org/10.30764/64/1819-2785-2016-1-118-126

Sedova, I. & Pechonchik (2018). Yazyk vrazhdy v informacionnom prostranstve Kryma: Informacionnoanaliticheskij doklad o rasprostranenii yazyka vrazhdy na territorii Krymskogo poluostrova (Mart-Iyun, 2017) [Hate speech in the information space of Crimea: an information report about spreading of hate speech across the territory of Crimea (March 2014 – July 2017)]. Kyiv.

Sedova, I & Krylova-Grek, Yu. (2022). Mova vorozhnechi v onlain-media, yaki vysvitliuiut podii u Krymu: Informatsiino-analitychna dopovid pro poshyrennia movy vorozhnechi v rosiiskomovnykh onlain media, yaki rehuliarno vysvitliuiut zbroinyi konflikt Ukrainy ta RF i poviazani z nym podii u Krymu (Hruden’ 2020–Traven’ 2021) [Hate speech in online media covering events in Crimea: Information and analytical report on the spread of hate speech in Russian-language online media, which regularly cover the armed conflict between Ukraine and Russia and related events in Crimea (December 2020-May 2021)]. Kyiv.

Stenberg, I. V. & Karasik, V. I. (1993). Psevdoargumentaciya: nekotorye vidy rechevyh manipulyacij. [Pseudo-argumentation: some types of speech manipulations]. Rechevoe obshchenie i Argumenaciya, 1, 30-38.

DellaVigna, S., Enikolopov, R., Mironova, V., Petrova, M., & Zhuravskaya, E. (2014). Cross-Border Media and Nationalism: Evidence from Serbian Radio in Croatia. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(3), 103–132. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.6.3.103

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. Routledge

Leets, L. (2002). Experiencing hate speech: Perceptions and responses to anti-Semitism and antigay speech. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 341–361.

Machikova М. (2015). Media v konteksti psykholinguistyky ta media psykholohii [Media Within Psycholinguistic and Media Psychological Context]. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 2(2), 118–126. Retrieved from https://eejpl.vnu.edu.ua/index.php/eejpl/article/view/154

Matsuda, M. J., Lawrence, C. R., Delgado, R., Williams Crenshaw, K. (1993). Words That Wound. Westview.

Outing, S. (2004). Eyetrack III: What News Websites Look Like Through Readers’ Eyes. The Poynter Institute. https://www.poynter.org/archive/2004/eyetrack-iii-what-news-websites-look-like-through-readers-eyes

Paz, M. A., Montero-Díaz, J., & Moreno-Delgado, A. (2020). Hate Speech: A Systematized Review. SAGE, https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020973022

Salminen, J., Veronesi, F., Almerekhi, H., Jun, S., & Jansen, BJ. (2018). Online Hate Interpretation Varies by Country, But More by Individual: A Statistical Analysis Using Crowdsourced Ratings. Fifth International Conference on Social Networks Analysis, Management and Security (SNAMS), 88–94, https://doi.org/10.1109/SNAMS.2018.8554954

Schneider, K. (2000). The emergence and development of headlines in English newspapers. In F. Ungerer, (Ed.). English Media Texts – Past and Present: Language and textual structure. (pp. 45-66). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.80

Sellars, AF, (2016). Defining Hate Speech. Berkman Klein Center Research Publication, 16-48, Boston University School of Law, Public Law Research, Boston University School of Law. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2882244

Selth, A. (2004) Burma's Muslims and the War on Terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27(2), 107-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100490275094

Tontodimamma, A., Nissi, E., Sarra, A., & Fontanella, L. (2021). Thirty years of research into hate speech: Topics of interest and their evolution. Scientometrics, 126(1), 157–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03737-6

Ungerer, F. (2000). English Media Texts – Past and Present: Language and Textual Structure. John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.80

Waldron, J. (2012). The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press

Whillock, R. K., Slayden, D. (Eds.). (1995). Hate Speech. Sage.

Sources

Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org

Recommendation No. R (97) 20 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on “Hate Speech” (30 October 1997). https://rm.coe.int/1680505d5b

UN Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/hate-speech-strategy.shtml

Downloads

Published

2022-12-26

How to Cite

Krylova-Grek, Y. (2022). Psycholinguistic approach to the analysis of manipulative and indirect hate speech in media. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.29038/eejpl.2022.9.2.kry

Issue

Section

Vol. 9 No. 2 (2022) Special Issue "Language and War"