East European Journal of Psycholinguistics 2022-12-26T14:22:52+00:00 Serhii Zasiekin Open Journal Systems <p><strong>East European Journal of Psycholinguistics</strong> is an international&nbsp;<a href="">open access</a>&nbsp;peer-reviewed academic periodical published semiannually in June and December with both online and print versions.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for scholars to share, foster, and discuss globally various new topics and advances in different fields of modern psycholinguistics. The journal publishes original manuscripts covering but not limited to the following theoretical and applied fields of psycholinguistics, including neurolinguistics, cognitive psychology, psychology of language, translation studies.</p> Editorial: Politics is not a spectator sport: On the role of psycholinguists in a global crisis 2022-12-26T13:06:15+00:00 Joshua Hartshorne <p style="font-weight: 400;">As psycholinguists, much of our time is spent steeped in abstraction, considering the nature of the mind. Every once in a while, we might raise our heads from our desks, gaze around, and wonder at the world around us and whether anyone might improve its state. Then it is back to binding principles, implicatures, and phonotactics.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">I believe in basic science, that knowledge is a <em>per se</em><em> </em>good, and that more knowledge is more better. But I also believe that these goods will only accrue if there is a functioning society for them to accrue in – the prospect of which, as the threats of climate change, nuclear war, and genocide so frequently remind us, is by no means certain. Finally, I believe that my colleagues are possessed of a striking wealth of knowledge and ability that must, to be blunt, be good for something.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Or perhaps not. Perhaps, in the face of societal threats, our skills are entirely extraneous, and our time is best spent knocking doors, calling representatives (if we are so fortunate as to have representatives), feeding refugees, comforting the afflicted, trading in our cars for bicycles, or heading to the battlefield.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">That is, I take it as a given that we should – all of us – be actively participating in constructing the world we wish to live in. Politics is not a mere spectator sport, in which we root and cheer and wear our favorite players’ jerseys. Society is what its members make it, and sitting on the sidelines affects the outcome just as much as getting out on the field. The question, then, is whether we should be contributing <em>as psycholinguists</em>.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Hence this special issue. The goal was certainly not to win the war through psycholinguistics. We are still (mostly) basic scientists, and even research on application unfolds too slowly to be of immediate use for the present conflict. The question, then, is whether we have anything to contribute to mitigating the consequences of the war, speeding recovery, preparing for or preempting the next one, and generally contributing to building the world we wish to live in. That question is too broad to be answered definitively with a single special issue, particularly one compiled under less-than-ideal conditions. (Many of the authors are refugees. In some cases, final revisions had to be completed on only a couple hours of electricity per day.)</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Call it a pilot project.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The contributors illustrate a number of ways psycholinguists might contribute. One set of contributions considers the role of language and communication in both fomenting and responding to conflict. <strong>Isacoff</strong> provides a theoretical overview of linguistic tools for promoting sectarian violence. <strong>Krylova-Grek</strong> provides a theoretically-motivated descriptive analysis of hate speech in Russian media. <strong>Matsuoka &amp; Matsuoka</strong> provide a detailed, line-by-line exegesis of the rhetorical strategies employed by Volodymyr Zelensky in his speech to the Japanese parliament, with a particular focus on mechanisms of building empathy and solidarity. Taking this a step further, both <strong>Ushchyna</strong> and <strong>Kovalchuk &amp; Litkovych</strong> document in real time the emergence of new words and other linguistic devices that are allowing Ukrainians to quickly convey to one another their shared experiences and values. (American audiences may find easy analogies to the emergence of societal buzzwords like “alternative facts” or “deplorables” or “red-pilled” – phrases that quickly expanded beyond their original usage to indirectly denote a cultural affiliation.)</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Another set of contributions focuses on the linguistic <em>consequences</em><em> </em>of conflict. <strong>Yeter, Rabagliati, &amp; Özge</strong> draw on a broad literature to consider how the refugee experience interrupts children’s linguistic &amp; cognitive development. <strong>Labenko &amp; Skrypnyk </strong>complement this with a detailed linguistic analysis of sixty child refugees from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. <strong>Chrabaszcz and colleagues</strong> present a more strictly applied study, addressing an even more direct consequence of displacement: many refugees land in countries where they do not know the language. The authors report on two crowd-sourced projects to provide virtual language instruction to refugees.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">A possible application for many of these lines of work is to monitor and track societal mood in real time. <strong>Karpina &amp; Chen</strong> use computational methods to analyze Ukraine-related statements on Twitter by four prominent Western politicians during the early course of the war. <strong>Zasiekin, Kuperman, Hlova, &amp; Zasiekina</strong> apply similar methods to analyzing mental state from Ukrainian war narratives posted on social media. The scope of both projects is limited by time pressure, power outages, and the like, but they join a larger literature in which researchers are increasingly using computational analysis of speech for applications ranging from monitoring hate speech to neuroclinical assessment (Lehr et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2022; Schmidt &amp; Wiegand, 2017).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">As of writing, the war in Ukraine continues. Psycholinguistics will not end it. I leave it to the readers of this issue to determine, after having considered the contributions herein, whether psycholinguists <em>qua</em><em> </em>psycholinguists have a role to play in the broader societal context, and what, if any, your own role should be.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Joshua K. Hartshorne Creating communities of practice for fostering second language learning in people in crisis 2022-12-26T13:09:59+00:00 Anna Chrabaszcz Vera Anisimova Julia Antropova Daria Bikina Anna Menukhova Sandra Mirabo Victoria Odnoshivkina Anna Shcherbakova Anna Tikhomirova Tetiana Zmiievska <p>This paper describes two volunteer-based nonprofit initiatives, <em>COMMON</em> and <em>Speak Up For Peace</em>, which originated as a response to the humanitarian crisis caused by the invasion of the Russian Federation of Ukraine. The initiatives function as communities of practice that provide free online foreign language instruction to people in crisis (predominantly Ukrainian refugees). We conducted an online survey in a subset of language instructors (N = 75) and participating people in crisis (N = 102) with the goals 1) to assess the effectiveness of provided language instruction, 2) to gain a better understanding of the participating learners’ and teachers’ experiences and attitudes towards their learning and teaching, respectively, 3) to identify the main challenges and issues that learners and teachers face while participating in the projects, and 4) to gauge the viability of these and similar volunteer-based language projects for people in crisis and refugees in the future. The survey revealed a significant improvement in proficiency and motivation of participating people in crisis to learn a new language. Additionally, participating in the projects was associated with overall positive emotional and psychological benefits, for both learners and teachers. Among the most common issues related to learning and teaching in the context of the projects were student absenteeism and attrition, work balance, and teacher training. Overall, the study revealed interesting insights about perceived attitudes toward learning and teaching in students and instructors, respectively. It may be of interest to educators, language instructors and policymakers working with refugee groups and people in crisis.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anna Chrabaszcz, Vera Anisimova, Julia Antropova, Daria Bikina, Anna Menukhova, Sandra Mirabo, Victoria Odnoshivkina, Anna Shcherbakova, Anna Tikhomirova, & Tetiana Zmiievska The psycholinguistics of propaganda: mechanisms of subjugation and how to challenge them 2022-12-26T13:25:21+00:00 Nora M. Isacoff <p>This paper reviews current research on the oppressive and dehumanizing use of language by those in political power to promote essentialist thought about oppositional groups, including during the war in Ukraine. Essentialism is the implicit belief that categories of people–those of certain ethnicities or nationalities, for example–have intrinsic, immutable properties, driven by some deep, unobservable, and often deterministic causal essence. There is robust evidence that cross-culturally, both young children and adults sometimes employ an essentialist heuristic when reasoning about cultural traits, and that they see others’ traits as being less mutable than their own. Strikingly, though, cultures vary drastically in the particulars and extent of this cultural essentialism. Thus, it seems clear that cultural input can to some degree either exploit or overwrite a tendency toward cultural essentialism, with language being an especially powerful mechanism. In this paper, I demonstrate ways that language is intentionally used by those with political power to promote essentialist thought and to justify violence. In particular, I highlight use of generic language, ascriptive definitions, and the language of opposites within propaganda. I end with consideration of ways to be responsive to instances of propaganda within our own communities and as global citizens, such as through pro-social repurposing of the linguistic tools that have been used destructively, promoting nuance through the use of differentiated language, and by capitalizing on an intuitive human belief in essential goodness and desire for truth.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Acknowledgements</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Deepest gratitude to Alexander Barhavin for translating the abstract from English into Ukrainian. </p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nora M. Isacoff Topic modelling and emotion analysis of the tweets of British and American politicians on the topic of war in Ukraine 2022-12-26T13:28:12+00:00 Olena Karpina Justin Chen <div><span lang="EN-GB">This paper focuses on the content and emotive features of four politicians' posts that were published on their official Twitter accounts during the three-month period of the russian invasion of Ukraine</span><span lang="EN-GB">. We selected two British politicians – Boris Johnson, the Prime Minister of the UK, and Yvette Cooper, the Labour MP and Shadow Home Secretary of the State for the Home Department – as well as two American politicians, President </span><span lang="EN-US">of the USA </span><span lang="EN-GB">Joe Biden and Republican senator Marco Rubio. In the first phase, we </span><span lang="EN-US">constructed a dataset containing the tweets of the four politicians, which were selected with regard to the topic of war in Ukraine. To be considered approved, the tweets were supposed to contain such words as <em>Ukraine, russia, war, putin, invasion,</em> spotted in one context. </span><span lang="EN-GB">In the second phase, we identified the most frequent lexical tokens used by the politicians to inform the world community about the war in Ukraine. For this purpose, we used Voyant Tools, a web-based application for text analysis. These tokens were divided into three groups according to the level of their frequency into most frequent, second most frequent and third most frequent lexical tokens. Additionally, we measured the distribution of the most frequent lexical tokens across the three-month time span to explore how their frequency fluctuated over the study period. </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">In the third phase, we analysed the context of the identified lexical tokens, thereby outlining the subject of the tweets. To do this, we extracted collocations using the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) library. During the final phase of the research, we performed topic modelling using the Gibbs Sampling algorithm for the Dirichlet Multinomial Mixture model (GSDMM) and emotion analysis using the NRC Lexicon library.</span></div> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Olena Karpina, Justin Chen Psycholinguistic aspects of representing aggression in wartime media discourse 2022-12-26T13:40:28+00:00 Liudmyla Kovalchuk Yuliia Litkovych <p>The article focuses on aggression caused by the Russian-Ukrainian war as a vivid phenomenon in media discourse. The paper reveals the psychological aspects of this phenomenon, the reasons for the use of verbal aggression, its forms, and its impact on recipients. The research also explores lexical and stylistic means of representing aggression in the Ukrainian media discourse: online publications in periodicals and posts on social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It has been identified that the frequently used invective vocabulary and creolized memes in the media are specific verbal and nonverbal means of psychological liberation from aggression and destructive influence on the target audience. Based on the results of a survey involving 100 respondents from different regions of Ukraine, 50 of whom were male and 50 female, it was found that aggression serves to expose such dominant negative emotions evoked by the Russian-Ukrainian war as anger and hatred. However, the object of aggression of the people surveyed is strikingly different: for 58 % of men it’s the Russian president, while for 52 % of women – the Russian troops. When asked about the most common forms of aggression, the majority of the respondents claimed that it is expressed by mockery, curses and obscenity. The survey documented the use of the corresponding war-related emotionally charged vocabulary, including neologisms with various word-building patterns and newly formed set phrases, by both females and males to express their aggression verbally. Additionally, the participants of the survey confirmed that creolized memes are effective functional tools with nearly equally distributed percentage of protesting against the war, ridiculing invaders and resisting the Russian propaganda.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Liudmyla Kovalchuk, Yuliia Litkovych Psycholinguistic approach to the analysis of manipulative and indirect hate speech in media 2022-12-26T14:08:29+00:00 Yuliya Krylova-Grek <p>The present study takes a psycholinguistic approach to the analysis of Russian media texts published between 1 December 2020 to 31 May 2021. I aimed to provide a scientific basis for the existence of manipulative and indirect hate speech using an interdisciplinary methodology comprising linguistic, psycholinguistic, and other analytical methods such as fact-checking and logical analysis. This facilitated the identification of techniques employed by the authors of the respective texts. In the article, I describe how I use the methodology to analyse media texts. I discovered that three basic types of hate speech were used to influence the audience’s consciousness: (1) direct hate speech; (2) indirect (hidden) hate speech; and (3) manipulative hate speech. The first and second types were the most common. This may be explained by the fact that direct hate speech is condemned by international organisations and its use may be a reason for lawsuits against media outlets and their further penalisation. Texts with evidence of the second and third types of hate speech aimed to create a negative attitude toward a particular nationality, race, citizen, and so on. I consider such behaviour to be an early manifestation of widespread discrimination and other forms of intolerance, including possible violence and genocide. The present study was carried out in collaboration with a Crimean human rights group. The author was invited to participate as an expert in the field of psycholinguistic textual analysis. The research was prepared and completed at the beginning of February 2022, on the eve of the invasion of Ukraine. We have gathered evidence of indirect and manipulative hate speech that dehumanised, demonised, and marginalised Ukrainian citizens. This has led to violence against the civilian population and high numbers of casualties. The aforementioned methodology will continue to be used in the analysis of current media content.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yuliya Krylova-Grek Cultivation of solidarity and soft power: Ukrainian President Zelensky’s 2022 speech to Japan 2022-12-26T14:03:10+00:00 Misato Matsuoka Rieko Matsuoka <div><span lang="EN-US">Words not only describe the world but also influence the world or modify relationships (Austin, 1965; Pinker et al,, 2008). </span>Since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has presented his competence in influencing or even shaping diplomatic relationships through his words and utterances. This study explores the ways in which he has been successful as a strategic speaker (Lee &amp; Pinker, 2010), establishing solidarity with Japan using the soft power introduced by Nye (2004, 2011). By closely examining his 12-minute online speech at the Japanese parliament in March 2022, it investigates the extent to which his speech has exerted influence on the Japanese people as well as on the two countries’ relationship. As for methodology, the data of an English-translated script were analyzed by adopting politeness theory (Brown &amp; Levinson, 1987), which stems from the concept of “face” (Goffman, 1967), a positive social value in social interaction. Specifically, all of President Zelensky’s utterances were evaluated by three factors that account for politeness strategies – relative power, social distance, and weight of imposition. Based on this analysis and the responses in Japan, this study argues that his speech adopted not only face-threatening but also face-boosting effects (Bayraktaroğlu, 1991), building common ground as an affiliation strategy and generating solidarity and soft power. This study concludes that President Zelensky’s speech to Japan contributes to consolidating solidarity in Japanese minds and soft power, which have encouraged the Japanese government and its citizens to continue supporting Ukraine financially, psychologically, and diplomatically.</div> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Misato Matsuoka, Rieko Matsuoka The influence of stress on children’s speech in the context of war 2022-12-26T14:01:08+00:00 Antonina Skrypnyk Olha Labenko <div><span lang="UK">War is an unbearable and unforeseen burden on the human psyche. Threat to existence, fear for life, loss of loved ones lead to an increase of non-psychotic borderline disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. </span></div> <div><span lang="EN-US">Children represent t</span><span lang="UK">he most unprotected and vulnerable part of the population</span><span lang="EN-US">. Being in the zone of military conflict, they acquire a tragic experience that deforms their consciousness, their values </span><span lang="EN-US">and outlook. Children experience mood swings, depression, unmotivated aggression, obsessive states, overwhelming fear and anticipation of retelling the experienced events. The article is devoted to the analysis of speech characteristics of children who witnessed the Russo-Ukrainian war, which began on February 24, 2022. The study focuses on the description of the verbalization of the psychological state of a child who witnessed bombings and shelling, children from the occupied territories who had to leave their homes, and children who, not being direct witnesses of military operations, have been forced to live in temporary refugee camps for six months unable to return to their houses. The authors analyze ways of verbalizing fear, anxiety, obsessive states, types of verbal aggression. The article deals also with the influence of parents on overcoming or, vice versa, increasing children's stress.</span></div> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Antonina Skrypnyk, Olha Labenko From conflict of discourses to military conflict: multimodality of identity construction in Russo-Ukrainian war discourse 2022-12-26T14:13:13+00:00 Valentyna Ushchyna <p>This study is an attempt to grasp the discursive nature of Russo-Ukrainian war. The critical discourse analysis of the conflicting ways Russian and Ukrainian identities are constructed in discourse and by discourse can shed light onto the covert reasons of the unprovoked military aggression Russia has been executing against Ukraine. Our assumptions are based on the idea that identity is a manifold of stances taken by individual as well as collective speakers in various situations of communication. Having epistemic and affective dimensions, stances are inherently interactive, and, thus, have a collective or social nature. Generally speaking, conflictual stances, built in war discourse, express national, political, or sociological worldviews of the stance-takers, reflecting their ideologies, values, and beliefs. The way people see the conflict differs according to what "frames" they choose to see it through. In this study, the frames circumscribing Ukrainian and Russian conflictual identities, as they are built in Ukrainian and Russian media discourse, including social media, have been deconstructed and analyzed. As there are diverse semiotic systems that are used to create, transmit and understand meanings (e.g., verbal and non-verbal, written and oral, visual and audial) various modalities employed in the process of discursive construction of these identities were taken into consideration.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Valentyna Ushchyna Threat of war on cognitive development of refugee children 2022-12-26T14:18:59+00:00 Özlem Yeter Hugh Rabagliati Duygu Özge <p style="font-weight: 400;">War trauma is often accompanied by poor living conditions in the new environment in a manner preserving or even deteriorating the negative influences of war. Several researchers have investigated the refugee experiences of displaced children. Often they have focused on the detrimental effects of war on psychological well-being, mental health, educational settings, social adaptation, quality of nutrition, financial difficulties, safety and language learning experiences. Each of these effects has been proven to negatively affect cognitive abilities; however, the current study reviews the key studies to reveal the cognitive and linguistic outcomes of holding refugee status in the early childhood period. Doing this, we aim to reveal the adverse conditions that affect refugee children’s three core abilities of executive functions, namely working memory, inhibitory control and shifting. In addition to cognitive outcomes, we present the factors that may affect these children’s mother tongue development and their experiences with the language spoken in the host country in the context of schooling. This study suggests that refugee children should be assessed for their cognitive and language abilities after arriving in the country of resettlement so that their needs can be identified and addressed effectively. Caretakers should also be given both psychological and financial support to enrich their children’s language and cognitive input. Also, the outcomes of the research in this field should be effectively shared with different stakeholders from the caregivers and teachers of the refugee children to the NGOs and policymakers responsible to take solid actions to counter the adverse effects of displacement.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Özlem Yeter, Hugh Rabagliati, Duygu Özge War stories in social media: Personal experience of Russia-Ukraine war 2022-12-26T14:22:52+00:00 Serhii Zasiekin Victor Kuperman Iryna Hlova Larysa Zasiekina <p style="font-weight: 400;">In light of the current Russia-Ukraine war, traumatic stress in civilian Ukrainians is a critical issue for psychological science to examine. Social media is often viewed as a tribune for authors’ self-expressing and sharing stories on the war’s impact upon their lives. To date, little is known about how the civilians articulate their own war experience in social media and how this media affects the processing of traumatic experience and releasing the traumatic stress. Thus, the goal of the study is to examine how the personal experience of the Russia-Ukraine war 2022 is narrated on Facebook as a popular social media venue. The study uses a corpus of 316 written testimonies collected on Facebook from witnesses of the Russia-Ukraine war and compares it against a reference corpus of 100 literary prosaic texts in Ukrainian. We analyzed both corpora using the Ukrainian version of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software – LIWC 2015 (Pennebaker et al., 2015). We identified psychological and linguistic categories that characterized the war narratives and distinguished it from the literary reference corpus. For instance, we found the style of Facebook testimonies to be significantly less narrative and more analytic compared to literary writings. Therefore, writers in the social media focus more on cognitive reappraisal of the tragic events, i.e., a strategy known to lead to a reduction of stress and trauma.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"> </p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Serhii Zasiekin, Victor Kuperman, Iryna Hlova, Larysa Zasiekina